Search within:

Adam Rapp

Rapp, Adam
The Ralph & Luci Schey Professor of Sales; Executive Director, Schey Sales Centre
31 S. Court Street


  • Ph.D., University of Connecticut, 2006
  • MBA, Villanova University, 2001
  • B.S., Penn State University, 1997


  • Panagopoulos, Nick, Adam Rapp, and Michael Pimentel (2020). “Firm Actions to Develop an Ambidextrous Salesforce,” Journal of Service Research, 23(1), 87-104.
  • Rapp, Adam, Thomas L. Baker, Nathaniel N. Hartmann, and Michael Ahearne (2020). “The Intersection of Service and Sales: The Increased Importance of Ambidexterity,” Journal of Service Research, 23(1), 8-12.
  • Ogilvie, J., Agnihotri, R., Rapp, A., & Trainor, K. (2018). Social media technology use and salesperson performance: A two study examination of the role of salesperson behaviors, characteristics, and training. Industrial Marketing Management, 75, 55-65.
  • Gabler, Colin B., Adam Rapp, Robert Glenn Richey, and Frank G. Adams. (2018) "Can Service Climate Detract from Employee Performance? The Role of Experience in Optimizing Satisfaction and Performance Outcomes." Decision Sciences (49)1, 7-24.
  • Beitelspacher, Lauren Skinner, Thomas L. Baker, Adam Rapp, and Dhruv Grewal. (2018) "Understanding the long-term implications of retailer returns in business-to-business relationships." Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (2): 252-272.
  • Panagopoulos, Nikolaos G., Adam A. Rapp, and Jessica L. Ogilvie. "Salesperson Solution Involvement and Sales Performance: The Contingent Role of Supplier Firm and Customer–Supplier Relationship Characteristics." Journal of Marketing 81.4 (2017): 144-164.
  • Gabler, Colin B., Jessica L. Ogilvie, Adam Rapp, and Daniel G. Bachrach. "Is there a dark side of ambidexterity? Implications of dueling sales and service orientations." Journal of Service Research 20, no. 4 (2017): 379-392.
  • Ogilvie, Jessica, Adam Rapp, Raj Agnihotri, and Daniel G. Bachrach. "Translating sales effort into service performance: it's an emotional ride." Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 37, no. 2 (2017): 100-112.
  • Jessica Ogilvie, Adam Rapp, Ryan Mullins, Dan Bachrach and Jaron Harvey, “Do Climates Compete? The Impact of Multiple Psychological Climates on Employee Performance,” (2017), Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 37, no. 1: 11-26.
  • Gabler, Colin B., Nikolaos Panagopoulos, Pavlos A. Vlachos, and Adam Rapp. "Developing an environmentally sustainable business plan: An international B2B case study." Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 24, no. 4 (2017): 261-272.
  • Adam Rapp and Thomas Baker “The Intersection of Sales and Service,” (2017), special issue editorial, Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management. 4-10.
  • Bachrach, Daniel G., Ryan R. Mullins, and Adam A. Rapp (2017). "Intangible sales team resources: Investing in team social capital and transactive memory for market-driven behaviors, norms and performance." Industrial Marketing Management 62: 88-99.
  • Rapp, Adam A., Daniel G. Bachrach, Karen E. Flaherty, Douglas E. Hughes, Arun Sharma, and Clay M. Voorhees (2017). "The Role of the Sales-Service Interface and Ambidexterity in the Evolving Organization: A Multilevel Research Agenda." Journal of Service Research 20, no. 1: 59-75.
  • Pavlos A. Vlachos, Nikolas G. Panagopoulos, and Adam A. Rapp, (2016) "I Think They Think We Are Good Citizens: Meta-Perceptions as Antecedents of Employees' Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility,” Journal of Business Research, 69(8), 2781-2790.
  • Kris Lindsey, Thomas Baker, Martha Andrews, Tammy Hunt, and Adam Rapp (2016), “The Importance of Product/Service Quality for Frontline Marketing Employee Outcomes: The Moderating Effect of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX),” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 24(1), 23-41.
  • Adam Rapp, Tom Baker, Daniel Bachrach, Jessica Ogilvie, and Lauren Beitelspacher (2015), “Perceived Customer Showrooming Behavior and the Effect on Retail Salesperson Self-Efficacy and Performance,” Journal of Retailing, 91(2), 358-369.
  • Adam Rapp, Jessica Ogilvie and Daniel Bachrach, (2015), “Sales Leadership Icons and Models: How Comic Book Superheroes Would Make Great Sales Leaders,” Business Horizons, 58 (3), 261-274.
  • Mullins, Ryan R., Daniel G. Bachrach, Adam Rapp, Dhruv Grewal, and Lauren Bietelspacher (2015), “You Don’t Always Get What You Want, and You Don’t Always Want What You Get: An Examination of Control-Desire for Control Congruence in Transactional Relationships,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(4), 1073-88.
  • Gabler, Colin B., R. Glenn Richey and Adam Rapp (2015), “Developing an Eco-Capability through Environmental Orientation and Organizational Innovativeness,” Industrial Marketing Management, 45, 151-161.
  • Adam Rapp, Raj Agnihotri, Tom Baker and James Andzulis (2015), “Competitive Intelligence Collection and Use by Sales and Service Representatives: How Managers’ Recognition and Autonomy Moderate Individual,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(3), 357-374.
  • Adam Rapp, Daniel Bachrach, Nikolaos G. Panagopoulos and Jessica Ogilvie (2014), “Salespeople as Knowledge Brokers: A Review and Critique of the Challenger Sales Model,” Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 34 (4), 1 – 15, Winner of the 2015 Marvin Jolson Award for Best Contribution to Selling and Sales Management Practice.
  • Morgan, Tyler R., Adam Rapp, R. Glenn Richey, and Alex E. Ellinger (2014), “Marketing Culture to Service Climate: The Influence of Employee Control and Flexibility.” Journal of Services Marketing, 28(6), 498-508.
  • Pavlos A. Vlachos, Nikolas G. Panagopoulos, and Adam A. Rapp (2014), "Employee Judgments of and Behaviors towards Corporate Social Responsibility: A Multi-study Investigation of Direct, Cascading, and Moderating Effects" Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(7), 990-1017.
  • Tammy Rapp, Bachrach, Daniel, Rapp, Adam, and Mullins, Ryan, (2014). “The Role Of Team Goal Monitoring In The Curvilinear Relationship Between Team Efficacy And Team Performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(5), 976-984.
  • Baker, Tom, Adam Rapp, Tracy Meyer, and Ryan Mullins (2014), “The Role of Brand Communications on Front Line Service Employee Beliefs, Behaviors, and Performance,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 42(6), 642-57.
  • Gabler, Colin B., Adam Rapp and R. Glenn Richey (2014), “The Effect of Environmental Orientation on Salesperson Effort and Participation: The Moderating Role of Organizational Identification,” Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 34 (3), 173-187.
  • Raj Agnihotri, Adam Rapp, James Andzulis, and Colin Gabler (2014), “Examining the Drivers and Performance Implication of Boundary Spanner Creativity,” Journal of Services Research, 17(2), 164-181.
  • Kevin Trainor, James Andzulis, Raj Agnihotri, and Adam Rapp (2014), “Social Media Technology Usage and Customer Relationship Performance: A Capabilities Based Examination of Social CRM,” forthcoming at the Journal of Business Research. 67(6), 1201- 1208.
  • Epitropaki Olga, Pavlos Vlachos, Nikolas Panagopoulos, Adam Rapp (2014), “Causal Attributions and Employee Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility” Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 6(4), 334-337.
  • Adam Rapp, Daniel Bachrach and Tammy Rapp (2013), “The Influence Of Time Management Skill On The Curvilinear Relationship Between Organizational Citizenship Behavior And Task Performance,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(4), 668-679.
  • George Franke, Adam Rapp, and James Andzulis (2013), “Using Shortened Scales in Sales Research: Risk, Benefits, and Strategies,” Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 33(3), 319-328.
  • Adam Rapp, Lauren Skinner, Dhruv Grewal and Doug Hughes (2013), “Understanding Social Media Effects Across Seller, Retailer, and Consumer Interactions,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(5), 547-566.
  • Doug Hughes, Joel Le Bon, and Adam Rapp (2013), “Gaining and Leveraging Customer-Based Competitive Intelligence: The Pivotal Role of Social Capital and Salesperson Adaptive Selling Skills,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(1), 91-110.
  • Pavlos A. Vlachos, Nikolas G. Panagopoulos, and Adam A. Rapp (2013), “Feeling Good by Doing Good: Employee CSR-induced Attributions, Job Satisfaction, and the Role of Charismatic Leadership,” Journal of Business Ethics, 118(3), 577-588.
  • Raj Agnihotri, Adam Rapp, Prabakar Kothandaraman, Rakesh K. Singh (2012), “An Emotion-Based Model of Salesperson Ethical Behaviors,” Journal of Business Ethics, 109 (2), 243-257.
  • Raj Agnihotri and Adam Rapp (2012), "Perspectives on Competitive Intelligence within Business: A Tactical Tool for Salespeople to Gain a Competitive Advantage," The Marketing Review, 11(4) 363-380.
  • Adam Rapp, and Nikolas Panagopoulos (2012), “Perspectives on Personal Selling and Social Media: Introduction to the Special Issue”, Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 32(3), 301-304.
  • James Andzulis, Nikolas Panagopoulos, and Adam Rapp (2012), “A Review of Social Media and Implications for the Sales Process,” Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 32(3), 305-315.
  • Adam Rapp, Lauren Skinner Beitelspacher, Niels Schillewaert, and Tom Baker (2012), “The Differing Effects Of Technology On Inside Vs. Outside Sales Forces To Facilitate Enhanced Customer Orientation And Interfunctional Coordination,” Journal of Business Research, 65(7) 929-936.
  • Michael Ahearne, Adam Rapp, Babu Maridross, and Shankar Ganesan, (2012),“Challenges of CRM Implementation in Business-to-Business Markets: A Contingency Perspective,” Special Issue, Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 32(1), 117-130.
  • Kevin Trainor, Adam Rapp, Lauren Skinner Beitelspacher, and Niels Schillewaert (2011), “Integrating Information Technology and Marketing: An Examination of the Drivers and Outcomes of E-Marketing Capability,” Industrial Marketing Management, 40(1) 162-174.
  • Adam Rapp, Raj Agnihotri, and Tom Baker (2011), "Conceptualizing Salesperson Competitive Intelligence: An Individual Level Perspective," Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 31(2), 141-156. – James Comer Award for Best Theory Paper (2011).
  • Adam Rapp, Michael Ahearne, John Mathieu and Tammy Rapp (2010), “Managing Sales Teams in a Virtual Environment,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 27(3), 213-224.
  • Adam Rapp, Kevin Trainor, and Raj Agnihotri (2010), “Performance Implications of Customer-Linking Capabilities: Examining the Complementary Role of Customer Orientation and CRM Technology,” Journal of Business Research, 63(11), 1229-1236.
  • Michael Ahearne and Adam Rapp (2010), “The Role of Technology at the Interface between Salespeople and Consumers,” Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 30(2), 109-118.
  • Jennifer Wiggins-Johnson and Adam Rapp (2010), “A More Comprehensive Understanding and Measure of Customer Helping Behaviors,” Journal of Business Research, 63(8), 787-792.
  • Michael Ahearne, Adam Rapp, Doug Hughes, and Rupinder Jindal (2010), “Managing Sales Force Product Perceptions and Control Systems in the Success of New Product Introductions,” Journal of Marketing Research, 47(4), 764-776.
  • Raj Agnihotri, Adam Rapp, and Kevin Trainor (2009), “Understanding the Role of Information Communication in the Buyer-Seller Exchange Process,” Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 24(7), 474-486.
  • Adam Rapp (2009), “Outsourcing the Sales Process: Hiring a Mercenary Sales Force,” Industrial Marketing Management, 38(4), 411-418.
  • Adam Rapp, Raj Agnihotri and Lukas Forbes (2008), “The Sales Force Technology-Performance Chain: The Role of Adaptive Selling and Effort,” Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 28(4), 335-350.
  • Michael Ahearne, Eli Jones, Adam Rapp and John Mathieu (2008), “High Touch Through High Tech: The Impact of Salesperson Technology Usage on Sales Performance via Mediating Mechanisms,” Management Science, 54(3), 671-685.
  • Adam Rapp, Tammy Rapp and Niels Schillewaert (2008) “An Empirical Analysis of E-service Implementation: Antecedents and the Resulting Value Creation,” Journal of Services Marketing, 22(1), 24-36.
  • Raj Agnihotri, Kevin Trainor and Adam Rapp (2008), "Managing Global New Product Teams: A Theoretical Perspective," Journal of International Management Studies, 3(1) 73-78.
  • Adam Rapp, Niels Schillewaert and Wei Hao (2008), “The Influence of Market Orientation on e-Business Innovation o Performance: The Role of the Top Management Team,” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 16(1), 7-25.
  • Adam Rapp, Michael Ahearne, John Mathieu and Niels Schillewaert (2006), “The Impact of Knowledge and Empowerment on Working Smart and Working Hard: The Moderating Role of Experience,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 23(3), 279-293.
  • Michael Ahearne, John Mathieu and Adam Rapp (2005), “To Empower or Not to Empower Your Sales Force: An Empirical Examination of the Influence of Empowering Leader Behaviors on Customer Satisfaction and Performance,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 945-955.
  • Michael Ahearne, Ronald Jelinek and Adam Rapp (2005), “Moving Beyond the Direct Effects of SFA Adoption on Salesperson Performance: Training and Support as Key Moderating Factors,” Industrial Marketing Management, 34(4), 379-388 (Special Issue on Technology).


  • Top Reviewer Award | Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management
  • Ohio University College of Business Research Impact Award
  • America Marketing Association - Sales SIG Most Impactful Sales Paper
  • Shugan’s Top 20 Marketing Meta-Journal (Most Cited Marketing Articles)
  • Marketing Science Institute Research Grant | Creating Selling Synergies through Data Analytics
  • Sales Education Foundation Research Grant | Customer Analysis to Build Better Sales Pipelines
  • Special Issue Editor | Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management; Journal of Services Research
  • Sales Technology Book | SFA and CRM: A Focus on Selection and Implementation
  • Sales Practice Book | Transformative Sales: Becoming a Resource Manager and Knowledge Broker
  • Principal | Sales and Leadership Development Group; GATS Group Consulting
  • Teaching Excellence Award | Clemson University 2011; Kent State University 2007
  • National Collegiate Sales Competition | 5th Place Team; 4th and 9th Individual
  • Harvard Business Review Blog Network | Use Your Sales Force’s Competitive Intelligence Wisely
  • Best Theory Paper Award | Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management
  • Citations of Excellence Award | Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science


Dr. Adam Rapp is currently the Executive Director and the Ralph and Luci Schey Professor of Sales at Ohio University. Prior to joining the faculty at Ohio, he was the D. Paul Jones and Charlene Jones Endowed Chair in Services Marketing at the University of Alabama. Previously, Adam was an assistant professor at Clemson University and Kent State University. He has been invited to present at Harvard University and Columbia University, among others, to discuss his cutting edge techniques and approach to sales management. His work on the Hybrid Manager and Managing Millennials is being taught at institutions around the world. Adam is a visiting lecturer at the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School in Belgium, University of Eastern Finland, and the Athens University of Economics and Business and the ALBA School in Greece. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Connecticut, an MBA from Villanova University, and an undergraduate degree from Penn State. Adam also spent two years as a doctoral fellow at the University of Houston, where he researched and taught in the Sales Excellence Institute.

Adam has won teaching awards at the University of Houston, University of Connecticut, the overall business school teaching award at Kent State and Clemson Universities, and most recently the Board of Trustees Award for Teaching and Research at Clemson University. Adam’s has published three books and over fifty peer-reviewed articles which examine factors influencing the performance of front-line service and sales personnel. He has presented at hundreds of conferences and events around the globe.

After earning his MBA, Adam spent several years in the market research industry, primarily responsible for selling market research products and services to premiere companies around the world, including Mondelez, Georgia Pacific, and the FOX News Network. He is founder of the GATS Group Consulting focusing on leadership training, assessment, and various market research activities and a principal at the Sales and Leadership Development Group. Adam has engaged in training and consulting work across several industries which include companies such as Adidas, BASF, Ecolab, Verizon, Bayer, Berlex, Fraser Paper Mills, TEKlinks, Morgan Stanley, Vistakon, Eisai Pharmaceuticals, AchieveGlobal, and Kimberly Clark, among others.

Adam most recently won the 2019 Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management Top Reviewer Award, 2018 College of Business Top Researcher Award, 2017 Ohio University Research Impact Award, the 2016 Citations of Excellence award for his publication, “Understanding social media effects across seller, retailer, and consumer interactions" - Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science and the Neil Rackham award for sales knowledge dissemination (2014) and the most impactful theory article in the JPSSM (2014).