Ohio University

Li Xu

Li  Xu Profile Picture
Associate Professor, Communication Sciences and Disorders
Grover W229
Biomedical Engineering

Research Interests: Electrical Hearing, Auditory Prostheses

All Degrees Earned: Ph.D., Neuroscience, Florida, 1999. Master's of Medicine, Otolaryngology, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 1988. Bachelor's of Medicine, Hengyang Medical College, 1985.

Journal Article, Academic Journal (31)

  • Feng, Q., Stork, C., Xu, S., Yuan, D., Xia, X., LaPenna, K., Guo, G., Sun, H., Xu, L., Siedlecki, C., Brundage, K., Sheaffer, N., Schell, T., He, P. (2019). Increased circulating microparticles in streptozotocin-induced diabetes propagate inflammation contributing to microvascular dysfunction.. 3. The Journal of physiology; 597: 781-798.
  • Mou, Z., Chen, Z., Yang, J., Xu, L. (2018). Acoustic properties of vowel production in Mandarin-speaking patients with post-stroke dysarthria. 1. Scientific Reports; 8: http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-32429-8.
  • Ren, C., Yang, J., Zha, D., Lin, Y., Liu, H., Kong, Y., Liu, S., Xu, L. (2018). Spoken word recognition in noise in Mandarin-speaking pediatric cochlear implant users. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology; 113: 124--130. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165587618303549.
  • Yang, J., Qian, J., Chen, X., Kuehnel, V., Rehmann, J., von Buol, A., Li, Y., Ren, C., Liu, B., Xu, L. (2018). Effects of nonlinear frequency compression on the acoustic properties and recognition of speech sounds in Mandarin Chinese. 3. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 143: 1578--1590. http://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.5027404.
  • Hou, L., Xu, L. (2018). Role of short-time acoustic temporal fine structure cues in sentence recognition for normal-hearing listeners. 2. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 143: EL127-EL132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.5024817.
  • Chen, X., You, Y., Yang, J., Xu, L. (2017). Effects of nonlinear frequency compression on Mandarin speech recognition and sound quality perception in hearing-aid users. 4. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 142: 2610--2610. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.5014554.
  • Mao, Y., Xu, L. (2017). Lexical tone recognition in noise in normal-hearing children and prelingually deafened children with cochlear implants. International Journal of Audiology; 56: S23--S30. https://doi.org/10.1080/14992027.2016.1219073.
  • Mao, Y., Yang, J., Hahn, E., Xu, L. (2017). Auditory perceptual efficacy of nonlinear frequency compression used in hearing aids: A review. 3. Journal of Otology; 12: 97--111. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1672293017300193.
  • Mao, Y., Chen, Z., Xu, L. (2017). The application of neural network analysis on the assessment of lexical tone rehabilitation of pediatric cochlear implant users. 8. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 52: 573--579. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/28822408.
  • Yang, J., Xu, L. (2017). Mandarin compound vowels produced by prelingually deafened children with cochlear implants. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology; 97: 143--149. https://www.ijporlonline.com/article/S0165-5876(17)30153-2/fulltext.
  • Qi, B., Mao, Y., Liu, J., Liu, B., Xu, L. (2017). Relative contributions of acoustic temporal fine structure and envelope cues for lexical tone perception in noise. 5. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 141: 3022--3029. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.4982247.
  • Yang, J., Vadlamudi, J., Yin, Z., Lee, C., Xu, L. (2017). Production of word-initial fricatives of Mandarin Chinese in prelingually deafened children with cochlear implants. 2. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology; 19: 153--164. https://doi.org/10.3109/17549507.2016.1143972.
  • Yang, J., Brown, E., Fox, R., Xu, L. (2015). Acoustic properties of vowel production in prelingually deafened Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants. 5. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 138: 2791--2799. http://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.4932165.
  • Li, B., Hou, L., Xu, L., Wang, H., Yang, G., Yin, S., Feng, Y. (2015). Effects of steep high-frequency hearing loss on speech recognition using temporal fine structure in low-frequency region. Hearing Research; 326: 66--74. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378595515000866.
  • Kim, B., Chang, S., Yang, J., Oh, S., Xu, L. (2015). Relative Contributions of Spectral and Temporal Cues to Korean Phoneme Recognition. 7. PLoS ONE; 10: e0131807. https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131807.
  • Wang, S., Dong, R., Liu, D., Wang, Y., Liu, B., Zhang, L., Xu, L. (2015). The Role of Temporal Envelope and Fine Structure in Mandarin Lexical Tone Perception in Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder. 6. PLOS ONE; 10: e0129710. http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129710.
  • Zhou, N., Xu, L. (2014). Melody recognition in dichotic listening with or without frequency mismatch. 3. Ear and Hearing; 35: 379--382.
  • Mao, Y., Xu, L. (2013). [Music and cochlear implants] [Review].. 1. Journal of Otology; 8: 32--38. http://www.ohio.edu/people/xul/mao2013jotol.pdf.
  • Xu, L., Zhou, . (2013). [Tone language understanding with cochlear implants] [Review].. 4. Otolaryngology [News and Reviews]; 28: 196--199.
  • Mao, Y., Zhang, M., Nutter, H., Zhang, Y., Zhou, Q., Liu, Q., Xu, L. (2013). Acoustic properties of vocal singing in prelingually-deafened children with cochlear implants or hearing aids. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology; 77: 1833--1840.
  • Liu, Q., Zhou, N., Berger, B., Huang, D., Xu, L. (2013). Mandarin consonant contrast recognition among children with cochlear implants or hearing aids, and normal-hearing children. Otology & Neurotology; 34: 471--476.
  • Zhou, N., Huang, J., Chen, X., Xu, L. (2013). Relationship between tone perception and production in prelingually-deafened children with cochlear implants. Otology & Neurotology; 34: 499--506.
  • Zhou, N., Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2012). Characteristics of detection thresholds and maximum comfortable loudness levels as a function of pulse rate in human cochlear implant users. 1-2. Hearing Research; 284: 25--32. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378595511003017.
  • Feng, Y., Xu, L., Zhou, N., Yang, G., Yin, S. (2012). Sine-wave speech recognition in a tonal language. 2. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 131: EL133--EL138. http://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.3670594.
  • Wang, S., Xu, L., Mannell, R. (2011). Relative Contributions of Temporal Envelope and Fine Structure Cues to Lexical Tone Recognition in Hearing-Impaired Listeners. 6. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology; 12: 783--794. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10162-011-0285-0.
  • Wang, W., Zhou, N., Xu, L. (2011). Musical pitch and lexical tone perception with cochlear implants. 4. International Journal of Audiology; 50: 270--278. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/14992027.2010.542490.
  • Xu, L., Chen, X., Lu, H., Zhou, N., Wang, S., Liu, Q., Li, Y., Zhao, X., Han, D. (2011). Tone perception and production in pediatric cochlear implants users. 4. Acta Oto-Laryngologica; 131: 395--398. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/00016489.2010.536993.
  • Zhou, N., Xu, L., Lee, C. (2010). The effects of basal spectral shift on consonant confusion. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 128: 401--409.
  • Zhou, N., Xu, L., Lee, C. (2010). The effects of frequency-place shift on consonant confusion in cochlear implant simulations. 1. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 128: 401--409. http://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.3436558.
  • Xu, L., Zhou, N., Chen, X., Li, Y., Schultz, H., Zhao, X., Han, D. (2009). Vocal singing by prelingually-deafened children with cochlear implants. 1-2. Hearing Research; 255: 129--134. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378595509001543.
  • Han, D., Liu, B., Zhou, N., Chen, X., Kong, Y., Liu, H., Zheng, Y., Xu, L. (2009). Lexical Tone Perception with HiResolution and HiResolution 120 Sound-Processing Strategies in Pediatric Mandarin-Speaking Cochlear Implant Users:. 2. Ear and Hearing; 30: 169--177. https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00003446-200904000-00003.

Journal Article, Professional Journal (37)

  • Chen, X., Li, Y., Zhao, X., Han, D., Xu, L. (2007). A preliminary study on tone production in children with cochlear implants. Chinese Journal of Otology; 5: 171-175.
  • Pfingst, B., Burkholder-Juhasz, R., Xu, L., Thompson, C. (2007). Across-site patterns of modulation detection in listeners with cochlear implants.
  • Pfingst, B., Xu, L., Thompson, C. (2007). Effects of carrier pulse rate on modulation detection in subjects with cochlear implants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 121: 2236-2246.
  • Zhou, N., Zhang, W., Lee, C., Xu, L. (2007). Lexical tone recognition with an artificial neural network. Ear and Hearing.
  • Pfingst, B., Burkholder-Juhasz, R., Zwolan, T., Xu, L. (2007). Psychophysical assessment of strong and weak stimulation sites in auditory prosthesis electrode arrays.
  • Xu, L., Zheng, Y. (2007). Spectral and temporal cues for phoneme recognition in noise. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 122: 1758-1764.
  • Xu, L., Zhang, W., Zhou, N., Lee, C., Li, Y., Chen, X., Zhao, X. (2006). Mandarin Chinese tone recognition with an artificial neural network. Journal of Otology; 1: 30-34.
  • Xu, L. (2006). Temporal and spectral cues for speech perception. Chinese Journal of Otology; 4: 335-342.
  • Xu, L., Zwolan, T., Thompson, C., Pfingst, B. (2005). Efficacy of a cochlear-implant simultaneous analog stimulation strategy coupled with a monopolar electrode configuration. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology; 114: 886-893.
  • Pfingst, B., Xu, L. (2005). Psychophysical metrics and speech recognition in cochlear implant users. Audiology & Neuro-Otology; 10: 331-341.
  • Xu, L., Thompson, C., Pfingst, B. (2005). Relative contributions of spectral and temporal cues for phoneme recognition. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 117: 3255-3267.
  • Pfingst, B., Xu, L., Thompson, C. (2004). Across-site threshold variation in cochlear implants: relation to speech recognition. Audiology & Neuro-Otology; 9: 341-352.
  • Pfingst, B., Xu, L. (2004). Across-site variation in detection thresholds and maximum comfortable loudness levels for cochlear implants. 1. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology; 5: 11-24.
  • Xu, L., Li, Y., Hao, J., Chen, X., Xue, S., Han, D. (2004). Tone production in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants: A preliminary study. Acta Oto-laryngologica; 124: 363-367.
  • Franck, K., Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2003). Effects of stimulus level on speech perception with cochlear prostheses. 1. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology; 4: 49-59.
  • Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2003). Relative importance of the temporal envelope and fine structure in tone perception. 6. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 114: 3024-3027.
  • Xu, L., Tsai, Y., Pfingst, B. (2002). Features of stimulation affecting tonal-speech perception: Implications for cochlear prostheses. 1. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 112: 247-258.
  • Pfingst, B., Franck, K., Xu, L., Bauer, E., Zwolan, T. (2001). Effects of electrode configuration and place of stimulation on speech perception with cochlear prostheses. 2. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology; 2: 87-103.
  • Furukawa, S., Xu, L., Middlebrooks, J. (2000). Coding of sound-source locations by ensembles of cortical neurons. 3. Journal of Neuroscience; 20: 1216-1228.
  • Xu, L., Furukawa, S., Middlebrooks, J. (2000). Cortical mechanisms for auditory spatial illusion. Acta Oto-laryngologica; 120: 263-266.
  • Xu, L., Middlebrooks, J. (2000). Individual differences in external-ear transfer functions of cats. 3. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 106: 1451-1459.
  • Xu, L., Furukawa, S., Middlebrooks, J. (1999). Auditory cortical responses in the cat to sounds that produce spatial illusions. Nature; 399: 688-691.
  • Middlebrooks, J., Xu, L., Clock, A., Green, D. (1998). Codes for sound-source location in non-tonotopic auditory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology; 80: 863-881.
  • Xu, L., Furukawa, S., Middlebrooks, J. (1998). Sensitivity of sound-source elevation in non-tonotopic auditory cortex.. Journal of Neurophysiology; 80: 882-894.
  • Middlebrooks, J., Clock, A., Xu, L., Green, D. (1994). A panoramic code for sound location by cortical neurons. Science; 264: 842-844.
  • Xu, L., Probst, R., Harris, F., Roede, J. (1994). Peripheral analysis of frequency in human ears revealed by tone burst evoked otoacoustic emission. Hearing Research; 74: 173-180.
  • Xu, L., Pfaltz, C., Arnold, W. (1993). HLA antigens in patients with inner ear diseases of unknown etiology. 3. ORL; 55: 125-134.
  • Roede, J., Harris, F., Probst, R., Xu, L. (1993). Repeatability of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in normally hearing humans. 5. Audiology; 32: 273-281.
  • Chen, X., Liu, C., Xu, L. (1993). Synchronous recording of objective pulsatile tinnitus and electrocardiogram. 1. Journal of Audiology and Speech Pathology; 1: 32-34.
  • Chen, X., Liu, C., Guo, L., Xu, L. (1992). A preliminary study on clinical application of cochlear microphonics. 4. Clinical Journal of Otorhinolaryngology; 6: 201-204.
  • Liu, C., Chen, X., Xu, L. (1992). Cochlear microphonics and recruitment. 2. Acta Oto-laryngologica; 112: 215-220.
  • Harris, F., Probst, R., Xu, L. (1992). Suppression of the 2f1-f2 otoacoustic emission in humans. 1. Hearing Research; 64: 133-141.
  • Xu, L., Liu, C. (1991). Clinical application of evoked otoacoustic emissions: A preliminary report. 1. Clinical Journal of Otorhinolaryngology; 5: 1-3.
  • Xu, L., Lü, J., Wang, F., Liu, C. (1991). Otoacoustic emission cochleogram evoked by bone conducted stimulation. 3. Acta Physiologica Sinica; 43: 306-310.
  • Xu, L., Zhu, X., Zhao, Y. (1990). Immunoglobulin E and circulating immune complexes in endolymphatic hydrops. 7. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology; 99: 535-538.
  • Xu, L., Zhao, Y., Zhu, X. (1989). An allergological study of Meniere's disease. 3. Clinical Journal of Otorhinolaryngology; 3: 153-156.
  • Xu, L., Liu, C., Liu, Y. (1989). Measurement of evoked otoacoustic emissions in normal-hearing adults. 6. Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology; 24: 252-254.

Book, Chapter in Scholarly Book (5)

  • Xu, L., Mao, Y. (2015). Physiology of the auditory nervous system. 2. Changsha: Hunan Science & Technology Press.
  • Xu, L. (2003). Cochlear implant technology. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House; 8-38.
  • Xu, L. (2003). Introduction to psychoacoustics. Changsha: Hunan Science & Technology Press; 117-140.
  • Xu, L. (2003). Sound and its measurements. Changsha: Hunan Science & Technology Press; 15-29.
  • Middlebrooks, J., Xu, L., Furukawa, S., Mickey, B. (2002). Location signaling by auditory cortical neurons. New York: Springer-Verlag; 319-357.

Book, Chapter in Textbook (2)

  • Xu, L. (2006). Auditory physiology. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House; 43-58.
  • Xu, L., Li, Y. (2004). Cochlear implant hardware and mechanisms. Beijing: Scientific and Technical Documents Publishing House; 544-552.

Conference Proceeding (5)

  • Mayle, A., Mou, Z., Bunescu, R., Mirshekarian, S., Xu, L., Liu, C. (2019). Diagnosing Dysarthria with Long Short-Term Memory Networks. Proc. Interspeech 2019; 4514--4518.
  • Gong, S., Wang, Z., Sun, T., Smith, C., Xu, L., Liu, J. (2019). Dilated FCN: Listening Longer to Hear Better. IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics (WASPAA'19) ; http://www.waspaa.com/.
  • Chen, C., Bunescu, R., Xu, L., Liu, C. (2016). Tone Classification in Mandarin Chinese using Convolutional Neural Networks. San Francisco, CA: International Speech Communication Association (ISCA) Conference (Interspeech); http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/Interspeech_2016/pdfs/0528.PDF.
  • Middlebrooks, J., Xu, L., Eddins, A., Green, D. (1995). Decoding spike patterns in the auditory cortex. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag; 108.
  • Harris, F., Probst, R., Plinkert, P., Xu, L. (1993). Influence of interference tones on 2f1-f2 acoustic distortion products. Singapore: World Scientific. ; 87-93.

Conference, Poster (1)

  • Chen, L., Bunescu, R., Xu, L., Liu, C. (2016). Mandarin tone recognition based on unsupervised feature learning from spectrograms . The 5th Joint Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America and the Acoustical Society of Japan.

Other (63)

  • Xu, L. (2007). An acoustical, neural-network and perceptual study of tone production in children with cochlear implants. Zhangjiajie: The 4th International Symposium on Hearing Science Research and Clinics.
  • Zhou, N., Xu, L. (2007). An acoustical, neural-network and perceptual study of tone production in Mandarin-Chinese-speaking children. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 30: 71.
  • Xu, L., Liu, B., Chen, X., Kong, Y., Liu, H., Zhou, N., Han, D. (2007). Lexical tone perception with HiResolution® 120 speech-processing strategy in Mandarin-speaking children. Sydney: The 6th Asia Pacific Symposium on Cochlear Implants and Related Sciences.
  • Zhou, N., Xu, L. (2007). Mandarin Chinese tone production in children with cochlear implants. Scottsdale, AZ: American Auditory Society Annual Meeting.
  • Wei, W., Xu, L. (2007). Melody perception using a novel harmonic spacing filtering scheme in cochlear implant sound processing. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 30: 305-306.
  • Chen, X., Zhou, N., Li, Y., Zhao, X., Han, D., Xu, L. (2007). Recognition of lexical tone production by children with an artificial neural network. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 30: 70.
  • Zhou, N., Xu, L. (2007). The effects of spectral distribution of envelopes on lexical tone perception. Tahoe City, CA: Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses.
  • Xu, L. (2007). Tone production in Mandarin Chinese speaking children with cochlear implants. Tahoe City, CA: Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses.
  • Pfingst, B., Burkholder, R., Thompson, C., Xu, L. (2006). Modulation detection thresholds for cochlear implants: Dependence on stimulation site and stimulus level. 5. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 120: 3342.
  • Xu, L., Chen, X., Zhou, N., Li, Y., Zheng, Y., Zhao, X., Han, D. (2006). Recognition of lexical tone production of children with an artificial neural network. Moscow: Collegium ORLAS Congress.
  • Xu, L., Zheng, Y. (2006). Spectral and temporal cues for phoneme recognition in noise. Scottsdale, AZ: American Auditory Society Annual Meeting.
  • Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2005). Effects of carrier pulse rate on modulation detection in subjects with cochlear implants.. Seoul: The 25th Politzer Society Meeting.
  • Xu, L., Zhang, W., Lee, C. (2005). Mandarin Chinese tone recognition with an artificial neural network. Hong Kong: The 5th Asia Pacific Symposium on Cochlear Implants and Related Sciences.
  • Zheng, Y., Xu, L. (2005). Spectral and temporal cues for phoneme recognition in noise: Implications for cochlear implants. Pacific Grove, CA. : Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses.
  • Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2005). Temporal and spectral cues for tone perception. Pacific Grove, CA: Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses.
  • Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2004). Correlation of speech recognition by cochlear implant users with metrics based on thresholds and loudness levels. 4. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 116: 2601.
  • Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2004). Relationship between across-site variation in T and C levels and speech recognition in cochlear implant users. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 27: 191.
  • Xu, L., Zwolan, T., Thompson, C., Pfingst, B. (2004). Speech perception using the Clarion SAS and CIS strategies with monopolar and bipolar electrode configurations. Indianapolis, IN: VIIIth International Cochlear Implant Conference.
  • Xue, S., Moransky, T., Xu, L. (2003). Aging changes of female speakers voices: Longitudinal study. 15. The ASHA Leader; 8: 226.
  • Rout, A., Xu, L., Bond, B. (2003). Effect of delay on perception of hearing aid users own voice.. San Antonio, TX. : The American Academy of Audiology's 15th Annual Convention & Expo.
  • Xu, L. (2003). Features of stimulations important for lexical tonal perception. Taipei: The 4th Congress of Asia Pacific Symposium on Cochlear Implant and Related Sciences.
  • Drenner, W., Pfingst, B., Xu, L. (2003). Intensity discrimination using bipolar and monopolar electrode configurations in Nucleus Contour® cochlear implants. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 26: 60.
  • Drennan, W., Pfingst, B., Xu, L. (2003). Intensity discrimination using bipolar and monopolar electrode configurations in Nucleus Contour® cochlear implants. Pacific Grove, CA: Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses.
  • Pfingst, B., Miller, A., Nakaizumi, T., Colesa, D., Xu, L., Anderson, D., Raphael, Y. (2003). Modifications of the electrode-neuron interface: Functional assessment.. Pacific Grove, CA.: Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses.
  • Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2003). Relative contribution of spectral and temporal cues for phoneme perception as revealed by acoustic simulations of cochlear implants. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 26: 198-199.
  • Franck, K., Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2003). The influence of experience in determining processor settings. Washington DC. : International Conference on Cochlear Implants in Children.
  • Xu, L., Li, Y., Hao, G., Chen, X., Xue, S., Han, D. (2003). Tone production in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants: A preliminary report. Pacific Grove, CA: Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses.
  • Xu, L., Li, Y., Hao, G., Chen, X., Xue, S., Han, D. (2003). Tone production in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants: A preliminary report. Helsinki: Collegium ORLAS Congress.
  • Xu, L., Li, Y., Hao, G., Chen, X., Xue, S., Han, D. (2003). Tone production in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants: A preliminary study. Taipei: The 4th Congress of Asia Pacific Symposium on Cochlear Implant and Related Sciences.
  • Xu, L. (2002). Acoustic simulations of cochlear implants. Beijing: National Major Cities Conference on Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery.
  • Middlebrooks, J., Xu, L., Furukawa, S., Macpherson, E. (2002). Cortical neurons that localize sounds. 1. The Neuroscientist; 8: 73-83.
  • Franck, K., Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2002). Effects of stimulus level and dynamic range compression on speech perception with cochlear implants. Manchester: The VIIth International Cochlear Implant Conference.
  • Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2002). The relative importance of temporal envelope and fine structure for tone perception. Noordwijk: Collegium ORLAS Congress ; 88.
  • Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2002). Variation in thresholds and comfort levels across cochlear implant stimulation sites: Effects of electrode configuration and stimulus level. 122. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 25.
  • Middlebrooks, J., Xu, L., Furukawa, S., Mickey, B., Macpherson, E. (2001). Cortical representation of real and illusory sound sources. New York: 2001 Symposium on Processing the Auditory Environment: From Synaptic Mechanisms to Population Codes,.
  • Xu, L. (2001). Effects of stimulus level and electrode configuration on phoneme perception with cochlear implants. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 24: 169.
  • Pfingst, B., Xu, L., Morris, D., Franck, K. (2001). Influence of electrical stimulus configuration on information transmission: Psychophysics and speech perception. Pacific Grove, CA. : Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses ; 44.
  • Xu, L., Pfingst, B. (2001). Relative importance of the envelope and fine structure for tone perception as revealed by auditory chimera. Pacific Grove, CA: Conference on Implantable Auditory Prostheses; 167.
  • Xu, L., Tsai, J., Pfingst, B. (2001). Spectral and temporal features of stimulation affecting tonal-speech perception. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 24: 169.
  • Pfingst, B., Franck, K., Xu, L. (2000). ). Effects of electrode configuration and longitudinal electrode placement and spacing on speech recognition in implanted human subjects. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 23: 214.
  • Xu, L., Middlebrooks, J. (2000). Individual differences in external-ear transfer functions of domestic cats. 23: 176.
  • Furukawa, S., Xu, L., Middlebrooks, J. (2000). Neural ensemble codes for sound source location in the auditory cortex. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 23: 82-83.
  • Xu, L., Tsai, J., Franck, K., Pfingst, B. (2000). Temporal and spectral features of tone languages: Implications for cochlear implants. Washington, DC. : Collegium ORLAS Congress; 55-56.
  • Xu, L., Furukawa, S., Middlebrooks, J. (1999). Cortical mechanisms for auditory spatial illusions. Lyon: Collegium ORLAS Congress.
  • Xu, L., Furukawa, S., Middlebrooks, J. (1999). Cortical parallels to sound-localization illusions. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 22: 38.
  • Furukawa, S., Xu, L., Middlebrooks, J. (1999). Spike-count difference between pairs of cortical neurons: Sensitivity to sound-source location and sound pressure level. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 22: 39.
  • Furukawa, S., Xu, L., Middlebrooks, J. (1998). Coding of sound-source location by relative spike timing between pairs of cortical neurons. Neurosci Abstr ; 24: 1402.
  • Xu, L. (1998). Responses of auditory cortical neurons to sounds that produce spatial illusions. Neurosci Abstr ; 24: 1402.
  • Middlebrooks, J., Onsan, Z., Xu, L. (1998). Virtual sound localization with non-individualized transfer functions is improved by scaling transfer functions in frequency. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 21: 43.
  • Middlebrooks, J., Xu, L. (1996). Information-bearing elements of spike trains in the cat's auditory cortex. Neurosci Abstr ; 22: 1068.
  • Xu, L., Middlebrooks, J. (1995). Coding of sound source elevation by firing patterns of auditory cortical neurons. Neurosci Abstr; 21: 667.
  • Middlebrooks, J., Eddins, A., Xu, L., Green, D. (1995). Cortical codes for sound location. 5. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 97: 3398.
  • Probst, R., Xu, L., Harris, F. (1994). Cochlear processing short, transient stimuli: Linear and nonlinear superposition. . Estoril: Collegium ORLAS Congress.
  • Clock, A., Xu, L., Green, D., Middlebrooks, J. (1994). Neural network analysis of auditory representation: I. Temporal firing patterns of cortical neurons independent of stimulus duration. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 17: 24.
  • Xu, L., Clock, A., Green, D., Middlebrooks, J. (1994). Neural network analysis of auditory representation: II. Spatial interpolation and level invariance. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 17: 24.
  • Xu, L. (1993). A study on the correlation between evoked otoacoustic emissions and subjective hearing thresholds. Beidaihe: Symposium on Basic Research of Otorhinolaryngology.
  • Harris, F., Probst, R., Plinkert, P., Xu, L. (1993). Influence of interference tones on 2f1-f2 acoustic distortion products. Groningen: Symposium on Biophysics of Hair Cell Sensory System.
  • Xu, L., Roede, J., Probst, R., Harris, F. (1993). Otoacoustic emissions evoked by single versus multiple tonepips in humans. Abstr ARO Midwinter Meeting; 16: 98.
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