Ph.D., Linguistics, University of Colorado, Boulder, 1993. Dissertation: Zero Anaphora in Chinese: Cognitive Strategies in Discourse Processing.
Cognitive Science Certificate, Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, 1993.
- Interactional Linguistics and discourse analyses of Mandarin Chinese
- Usage based study of language and grammaticalization
- Second language learning (learning and memory and pedagogical implications)
- Grammar of Chinese and English
- Language, culture and cognition
Xiao, Y., Tao, L. & Soh, H. (eds.). 2012. Current Issues in Chinese Linguistics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing Ltd.
Tao, L. 2020. Usage, media, and grammaticalization. Chinese Language and Discourse An International and Interdisciplinary Journal, June 3, John Benjamins; 11(1), 55 - 83 DOI: 10.1075/cld.00024.tao
Wiener, Seth; Lee, Chao-Yang; Tao, Liang. 2019. Statistical regularities affect perception of Second language speech: Evidence from classroom learners of Mandarin Chinese. Language Learning, First published: 27 February 2019 https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12342
Tao. L. 2019. Usage based language change and exemplar representations in Chinese. In: Xiao, Yun, and Linda Tsung (eds.). Current Studies in Chinese Language and Discourse. 27-56. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Tao, L. 2019. Self-repair in Mandarin Chinese: The multimodality of conversation. In: Li, Xiaoting and Ono, Tsuyoshi (eds.). Multimodality in Chinese Interaction. 255-299. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton (eBook in 2018)
Tao, L. 2018. Self-repair in Mandarin Chinese: Grammar in conversation. In: 方梅 (Fang, Mei) (ed.). 互动语言学与汉语研究 (Interactional Linguistics and Chinese Language Studies). 33-69. 北京Beijing: 世界图书出版公司 (World Books Publishing Corporation. Peer-reviewed).
Tao, L. 2016. Metalinguistic awareness and self-repair in Chinese language learning. In: Tao, Hongyin (ed.). Integrating Chinese Linguistics Research and Language Learning and Teaching. 97-120. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Tao, L. & Healy, Alice F., 2016. Chinese Psycholinguistics: Reading Chinese. In: Chan, Sin-Wai (ed.). The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Chinese Language. 685-705. London & New York: Routledge (Taylor & Francis) Note: invited contribution.
Lee, C.-Y., Tao, L., and Bond, Z. S. 2013. Effects of speaker variability and noise on Mandarin tone identification by native and non-native listeners. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing, 16(1).46-54.
Lee, C.-Y., Zhang, Y., Xu, L., Tao, L., Bond, Z., 2012. Effects of speaker variability and noise on Mandarin fricative identification by native and non-native listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132, 2, 12.
Tao, L. 2012. Serial Verb Construction in Mandarin Chinese: The interface of syntax, semantics and language development. in Yun, X., L. Tao & H. Soh, (eds.). Current Issues in Chinese Linguistics, 197-234. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing Ltd. (Inclusion was peer-reviewed)
Tao, L. 2010. Conversational Repair. In Hogan, P. (ed.). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences. 225. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Note: invited contribution.
Tao, L. 2010. Reference Tracking. In Hogan, P. (ed.). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences. 707. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Note: invited contribution.
Lee, C.-Y., Tao, L., and Bond, Z. S. 2010. Identification of multi-speaker Mandarin tones in noise by native and non-native listeners. Journal of Speech Communication, 52. 900-910.
Lee, C.-Y., Tao, L., & Bond, Z. S. 2010. Identification of acoustically modified Mandarin tones by non-native listeners. Language and Speech. 53(2), 217-243. Reprints and permissions: www.sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions Language and Speech 0023-8309; Vol 53(2): 217–243; 357160; DOI:10.1177/0023830909357160http://las.sagepub.com
Tao, L. 2009. Syntactic tone and discourse processing in Beijing Mandarin: A case study. Journal of Chinese Linguistics. 37(2), 258-296. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23753780?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Tao, L. 2009. One mechanism, two changes in Mandarin Chinese. in: J. Xing (Ed.) Studies of Chinese Linguistics: Functional approaches. 185-203. Hong Kong University Press.
Lee, C.-Y., Tao, L., and Bond, Z. S. 2009. Speaker variability and context in the identification of fragmented Mandarin tones by native and non-native listeners. Journal of Phonetics, 37, 1-15.
Barbara Fox, Fay Wouk, Makoto Hayashi, Steven Fincke, Liang Tao, Marja-Leena Sorjonen, Minna Laakso, and Wilfrido Flores Hernandez. 2009. A Cross-linguistic investigation of the site of initiation in same-turn self-repair. in: Sidnell, Jack (ed.) Conversation analysis: Comparative perspectives. 60-103. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tao, L., & Guo, L. 2008. Learning Chinese Tones: A Developmental Account. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association. 43(2), 17-46. Lee, C.-Y., Tao, L., and Bond, Z. S. 2008. Identification of acoustically modified Mandarin tones by native listeners. Journal of Phonetics, 36, 537–563.
Tao, L. 2006. Classifier Loss and Frozen Tone in Spoken Beijing Mandarin: The yi+ge phono-syntactic Conspiracy. Linguistics. 44, 91-133.
Lee, C.-Y., Tao, L., & Bond, Z. S. 2006. Perception of acoustically modified Mandarin tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 119, 32-43.
Tao, L., Beutner, M., and Bond, Z. 2006. Speech Recognition Technology in the Instruction of Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association, 41(3), 57-88.
Tao, L. 2005. The Importance of Discourse Analysis for Linguistic Theory: A Mandarin Chinese Illustration. in: Frajzyngier, Zygmunt, Adam Hodges and David Rood (eds.), Linguistic Diversity and Language Theories. 285-317. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Tao, L. and Healy, Alice. 2005. Zero Anaphora: Transfer of Reference Tracking Strategies from Chinese to English. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 34, 99-131.
Tao, L. 2004. Switch Reference and Pronouns: Contextual dependency of reference accessibility in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Chinese Language and Computing, 14, 167-184.
Géraldine Legendre, Paul Hagstrom, Joan Chen-Main, Liang Tao and Paul Smolensky, 2004. Deriving output probabilities in child Mandarin from a Dual-Optimization grammar. Lingua, 114, 1147-1185.
Tao, L. & A. Healy. 2003. The unitization effect in the development of reading in Chinese and English: Evidence from letter/character-component detection. in: Catherine McBride-Chang & Hsuan-Chih Chen (eds.), Reading Development in Chinese Children. 183-196. Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
Tao, L. 2003. Complement clauses to verbs of wanting in Proto-Chadic: Competing motivations. In Mugane, J., (ed.), Linguistic Typology and Representation of African Languages. (Trends in African Linguistics. V. 5). 271-284. Trenton, N.J.: African World Press Inc.
Tao, L. & A. Healy. 2002. The unitization effect in reading Chinese and English texts. Journal of Scientific Studies of Reading. 6, 167-197.
Tao, L. 2002. Phono-syntactic conspiracy and beyond: Grammaticalization in spoken Beijing Mandarin. in: Wischer, I., & Dieward G., (eds.), New Reflections of Grammaticalization. 283-299. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Tao, L. 2001. Switch Reference and Zero Anaphora: Emergent Reference in Discourse Processing. In: Alan Cienki, Barbara J. Luka and Michael B. Smith (eds.). Conceptual and Discourse Factors in Linguistic Structure. 253-269. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Tao, L. & A. Healy. 2001. Frequency and Fusion in Language Processing. Journal of Cognitive Science. 2, 23-31.
Hagstrom, Paul, Joan Chen-Main, Geraldine Legendre & Liang Tao, 2001. Default ne in Child Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Cognitive Science. 2, 81-118.
Tao, L. 2000. Prosody and word recognition in Beijing Mandarin: a case study. In: Cutler, A., & McQueen, J. M. (eds.), Proceedings of SWAP, Nijmegen, the Netherlands: Max Plank Institute for Psycholinguistics. 175-178.
Tao, L. B. Fox & J. Gomez de Garcia, 1999. Tone-choice repair in Conversational Mandarin Chinese. In Fox, B, D. Jurafsky & L. Michaelis (eds.), Cognition and Function in Language. 268-281. Sanford: CSLI Publications.
Tao, L. And Healy, A. F., 1998. Anaphora in Language Processing: Transfer of cognitive strategies by native Chinese, Dutch, English, and Japanese speakers, Tao, L. & A. Healy. in A. Healy & L. Bourne (eds.) Foreign Language Learning: Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention. 193-212. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Healy, A. F., Barshi, I., Crutcher, R. J., Tao, L., Rickard, T. C., Marmie, W. R., Schneider, V. I., Feldman, A., Buck-Gengler, C. J., Romero, S. G., Sherrod, N. B., Parker, J. T., & Bourne, L. E., Jr. (1998). Toward the improvement of training in foreign languages. In A. F. Healy & L. E. Bourne, Jr. (eds.), Foreign language learning: Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention (pp. 3-53). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tao, L. 1997. Topic choice, switch reference and zero anaphora: The on-line construction of grammar. In C-Y Tseng, (ed.), Chinese Languages & Linguistics, IV: Typological Studies of Languages in China. 523-554. Academia Sinica.
Tao, L., A. Healy & L. Bourne. 1997. Unitization effect in second language learning: Evidence from letter detection. The American Journal of Psychology. 110, 385-395.
Tao L. and A. Healy. 1996. Cognitive strategies in discourse processing: A comparison of Chinese and English speakers, Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 25, 597-616.
Tao, L. 1996. Topic discontinuity and zero anaphora: Cognitive strategies in discourse processing. In Fox, B., (ed.) Studies in Anaphora. 487-513. John Benjamins.
Tao, L. 1995. Repair in natural Běijīng Mandarin Chinese. In Branner, D. P. (ed.), Yuen Ren Treasury. 55-77. Yuen Ren Society.
Tao, L. 1994. The prosodic structure and discourse function of relative clauses in American English conversation, in Ackema, P. & Schoorlemmer, M. (eds.), CONSOL 1. 285-298, The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics.
Recent Presentations, Workshops
Tao, L. (2016, Nov.). Speech Errors and Repair by Chinese Language Learners: Metalinguistic Knowledge in Chinese Learning. To be presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Boston, Massachusetts USA.
Tao, L. (2016, June). Usage based language change and Exemplar Representations in Chinese. Presented at the 4th International Symposium on Chinese Language and Discourse, Bryant University, Smithville, Rhode Island.
Tao, L. (2016, March). Self-initiated Self-repair in the interactive communication of Mandarin Chinese. Key-note presentation at the 2nd Conference on Interactional Linguistics and Chinese Language Studies, Shanghai, China.
Tao, L., & Healy, A.F., (2015, Nov.). The role of words in reading. Presented at the 56th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago, Illinois.
Tao, L. (2015, Sept.). Classifier Loss and Syntactic Tone: Usage based language change in Chinese. Invited presentation at the Center for Chinese Studies, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
Tao, L. (2015 April). Understanding Women Through Socio-Economic Changes in China. Invited presentation at the panel: The Art of Teaching Chinese Linguistics (i.e. Chinese Language and Culture) to Undergraduates at North American Colleges: A Special Panel at NACCL-27, UCLA, Los Angeles, California.
Tao, L. (2015, April). Metalinguistic Awareness and Self-repair in Chinese Language Learning. Presented at the 27th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics. UCLA, Los Angeles, California.
Tao, L., & Healy, A. F., (2014, Nov.). Impact of Word Presentation Format on Reading Chinese and English Text. Presented at the 55th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Long Beach, California.
Tao, L., & Healy, A. F., (2014, June). Word Identification in Chinese and English Prose Passages by Native and Nonnative Speakers Varying in Fluency. Poster presentation at the Festschrift Conference in honor of Professor Alice F. Healy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
Tao, L., & Healy, A. F., (2013, Nov.). Word Identification in English and Chinese Texts by Speakers Varying in Fluency. Poster presentation at the 54th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Toronto, Canada.
Tao, L. (2013, May). Usage-based Grammar: Prosodic Structure & Discourse Function of Relative Clauses in American English Conversations. Talk presented at the 12th China International Forum on Cognitive Linguistics. Beihang University, Beijing, China.
Tao, L., & Healy, A. F., (2012, Nov.). Parsing English and Chinese Strings of Characters into Words by Speakers Varying in Fluency. Poster presentation at the 53th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Zhang, J., Cao, L., Jing, L., & Tao, L. (2012, Nov.). Crosslinguistic Similarities and Working Memory Capacity on Chinese Language Processing. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Chinese Language Teachers Association (CLTA, part of ACTFL), ACTFL, Philladelphia, Pennsylvania.
Cao, L., Zhang, J., Jing, L., & Tao, L. (2012, Nov.). Working Memory and CSL Learning: Understanding Chinese Language Learners. Presented at the First Maryland International Conference on Chinese as a Second Language, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland.
Tao, L. (2011, July). Learning & Memory: A student centered curriculum design. Invited talk presented at the Summer Chinese Language Instructor Training Program, Teacher Preparation College, Beijing Language & Culture University, Beijing, PR China.
Tao, L. (2010, Nov.). Fuzzy Syntax: Zero anaphora in Chinese and sentence processing. Poster Presentation at the 51th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society. St Louis, Missouri.
Tao, L. (2010, Oct.). Relative Clause, Zero Anaphora and Reference Tracking in Spoken Mandarin Chinese. Talk presented at the First International Symposium on Chinese Language and Discourse, UCLA, Los Angeles, California.
Tao, L. (2010, July). Critical thinking and Academic Writing. Invited talk, Beijing Language & Culture University, Beijing, PR China.
Tao, L. (2009, Nov.). Conversational Repair and Discourse Comprehension: Teaching Mandarin Chinese using natural conversations. Presented in the Panel: Discourse/Pragmatics and Chinese Language Education, at the Annual Meeting of the Chinese Language Teachers Association in conjunction with ACTFL (2009 Annual Convention and World Languages Expo,). San Diego, California.
Grants & Awards
2009 Lee, C-Y, Tao, L. & Bond, Z., Evaluating the effects of limited acoustic input, noise, and speaker variability in Mandarin tone identification by native and non-native listeners. Grantproposal submitted to the US Department of Education (Denied).
1999 Ohio University 1804 Grant: Using Speech Recognition Strategies to Dramatically Improve Natural Pronunciation in Chinese Language Learners (Principal Investigator: Liang Tao; Co-PI: Zinny Bond, Michael Beutner).
1998 Summer Research Grant, Institute of Cognitive Science, CU Boulder, Colorado.
- Cahier de Linguistique Asie Orientale (CLAO)
- Journal of Memory and Cognition
- Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association
- Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
- Scientific Studies of Reading
- Fellow: Psychonomic Society
- Member of Chinese Language Teachers Association