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Rodger W. Griffeth

Dr. Rodger W. Griffeth, portrait
Professor Emeritus

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Ph.D. (1981) University of South Carolina, Columbia


Research Areas

  • Social Judgment & Behavioral Decision Making.


  • Organizational turnover and human resource systems.

Dr. Griffeth is not accepting new graduate students

Research Interests

  • Modeling employee turnover processes
  • Motivation
  • Job redesign
  • Job satisfaction.

Professor Griffeth’s primary research area has been in the understanding and prediction of a major organizational criterion—employee turnover. He has produced a body of research on this topic beginning with the development of a comprehensive and integrative theory of turnover causes. This paper (Psychological Bulletin, 1979), published with Bill Mobley, Bruce Meglino, and Herb Hand, has received a number of citations over the years and may have influenced a number of turnover researchers. Subsequently, Professor Griffeth extended referents cognition theory to derive a more complete explanation of how organizational injustice impacts turnover (Academy of Management Journal, 1997). More recently, he teamed up with Carl Maertz to develop a motive based theoretical synthesis to explain turnover and attachment behavior (Journal of Management, 2004).

Dr. Griffeth and Peter Hom also have collaborated on several tests of theories of employee turnover. Their first study together appeared in Organizational Behavior and Human Performance (1984) and was the first test of Mobley's (1977) complete model of how dissatisfaction evolves into turnover behavior. Using path analysis, they found an alternative causal structure which better fit the data (Hom, Griffeth, & Sellaro [HGS] Model). In a follow-up study, they introduced structural equation modeling (SEM) to substantiate this causal structure with panel survey data (Journal of Applied Psychology, 1991). Then in 1992, using meta-analysis to accumulate multiple studies on the HGS model and SEM analysis of these aggregated data, they further corroborated this alternative model (Journal of Applied Psychology, 1992). Currently, they are applying new statistical techniques known as latent growth modeling to assess how changes in theoretical components in the HGS model can influence turnover; in another study integrating the HGS model with another well known turnover model (Price-Mueller) to produce a theoretical synthesis of these two popular models.

In another research stream, still related to employee turnover, however, Dr. Griffeth and other colleagues pioneered realistic job previews (accurate, complete descriptions of a new job for entering employees) for professional employees—namely, registered nurses and certified public accountants. Then, they evaluated the previews’ effectiveness for reducing turnover in longitudinal field experiments and used SEM analysis to evaluate the mechanisms behind their impact on turnover (Personnel Psychology, 1997, 1998).

Professor Griffeth further contributed to the turnover literature by investigating a universal theoretical underpinning of turnover thinking. March and Simon (1958) first proposed that alternative job opportunities elsewhere (perceived ease of movement and desirability of movement) can motivate quitting behavior. With Robert Steel, Professor Griffeth completed a comprehensive meta-analysis that showed that existing operationalizations of employees’ perceptions of other job alternatives poorly explained turnover (Journal of Applied Psychology, 1989). These disappointing findings prompted some scholars to assert that the perceptions of the employment market plays a minimal role in employees’ decisions to quit. However, Steel and Griffeth (1989) reasoned that methodological artifacts may underpin these results. For example, their meta-analysis found prevailing operationalizations of perceived alternatives primarily relied on single item measures to assess the quality or quantity of alternatives (making for unreliable, deficient scales). In line with this reasoning, they recently showed that, within a multi-study context, a multidimensional measure of perceived alternatives (the Employment Opportunity Index, EOI) was a comprehensive, valid way to assess labor market impressions (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2005). This new scale demonstrated stronger predictive validity, over and above job satisfaction and organizational commitment, as well as previously used measures of perceived alternatives, combined. Their findings thus support March and Simon’s (1958) classic tenet that perceived employment opportunities are important turnover influences.

Professor Griffeth also studied our understanding of the performance-turnover relationship (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2001). How job performance relates to turnover determines whether turnover benefits or harms organizations. If performance is positively related to quits (i.e., high performers are more prone to quit than low performers), for example, then turnover is detrimental to organizational effectiveness. Professor Griffeth and David Allen showed that performance visibility and reward contingency both moderate the performance-turnover relationship. Before this major work, turnover meta-analyses simply estimated the performance-turnover relationship, paying little heed to its mediators and moderators.

Professor Griffeth also made statistical contributions to improve the indices of the relationship between turnover and predictors (Academy of Management Journal, 1990; Journal of Applied Psychology, 1988). To illustrate, he and Robert Steel (1990) proposed statistical adjustments for non-optimal rates of turnover (e.g., less than 50 percent) to attain more accurate estimates of the true predictive validity of turnover causes.

Professor Griffeth contributed to other aspects of the employment process. He teamed with others to show that employment interviews can have broad validity for predicting job success among new hires (Journal of Applied Psychology, 1990), and conducted complex comparative tests of competing models of recruitment sources (Journal of Management, 1997).

Beyond his impressive accomplishments in industrial psychology, Dr. Griffeth also published work in areas of organizational psychology. For example, he published a lab study finding that equity theory and interpersonal attraction interacted to influence behavior (Journal of Applied Psychology, 1989). Furthermore, he completed a field experiment establishing that employee participation in work redesign can enhance the positive effects of job enrichment (Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 1985).

Finally, Griffeth continues to make contributions to the field through his editorship of two relatively new outlets for theory and research. One, the journal Human Resource Management Review, focuses on a small niche of research by primarily publishing conceptual work in applied psychology areas. He is an editor for Research in Human Resource Management, a book series is devoted to promoting theory and research with each volume focusing on a particular topic. Four volumes have been completed, and he is currently working with volume editors for more in the series.


Refereed Journals (Appeared or Accepted) (Since 2000)

Griffeth, R., Lee, T., Mitchell, T.& Hom, P. (2012). Further Clarification on the Hom, Mitchell, Lee, and Griffeth (2012) model: Reply to Bergman, Payne, & Boswell (2012) and Maertz (2012). Psychological Bulletin, 138, 871-875.

Hom, P. Mitchell, T., Lee, T., &Griffeth, R. (2012). Reviewing employee turnover: Focusing on proximal withdrawal states and an expanded criterion. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 831-858.

Hom, P. & Griffeth, R.W. (in press). What is Wrong with Turnover Research? Commentary on Russell’s Critique, Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice.

Campbell, N.S., Perry, S., Maertz, C.P., Jr., Allen, D.G, & Griffeth, R.W. (in press). All You Need is…Resources: The Effects of Justice and Support on Burnout and Turnover. Human Relations.

Zhang, M., Griffeth, R, & Fried, D. (2012). Work-family conflict and individual consequences. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 27(7), 696-713.

Zhang, M., Fried, D., & Griffeth, R. (2012). Job embeddedness: A review of conceptualization and measurement Issues. Human Resource Management Review, 22(3), 220-231.

Morse, B., Johanson, G. & Griffeth, R. (2012). Using the graded response model to control spurious interactions in moderated multiple regression. Applied Psychological Measurement. 36(2), 122-146.

Robinson, S. D., Griffeth, R, W., Allen, D. G., & Lee, M. (2012). Comparing operationalizations of dual commitment and its relationship with turnover intentions. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(7), 1342-1359.

Griffeth, R., Witt, L. A., Polk, C., Robinson, S., Thacker, R., & Callison, K. (2011) Assessing the cost of underperformance: A computer programmer example. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist. 48(4), 13-19.

Schwerha, D., Ritter, C., Robinson, S, Griffeth, R., & Fried, D. (2011). Integrating Ergonomic Factors into the Decision to Retire. Human Resource Management Review, 21, 220-227.

Allen, D.G., Griffeth, R., Vardaman, J., Aquino, K, Gaertner, S., & Lee, M. (2009). Structural validity and generalizability of a referent cognitions model of turnover intentions. Applied Psychology: An International Review. 58(4), 709-728.

Maertz, C.P., Jr., Griffeth, R.W., Campbell, N.S., & Allen, D.G. (2007). The effects of perceived organizational and supervisor support on turnover. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 28(8),1059-1075.

Griffeth, R.W., Allen, D.G., and Barrett, R. (2006). Integration of Family Owned Business Succession with Turnover and Life Cycle Models: Development of a Successor Retention Process Model. Human Resource Management Review,16 (4), 490-507.

Landry, B. J. L., Griffeth, R.W. & Hartman, S. (2006). Measuring student perceptions of blackboard using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education. 4(1), 87-99.

Griffeth, R. W., Steel, R., & Allen, D, & Bryan, N.(2005). Development and validation of a multidimensional measure of perceived alternatives: The employment opportunity index (EOI). Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(2), 335-349.

Maertz, C. P., Jr., & Griffeth, R.W. (2004). Eight motives of employee attachment and turnover: A theoretical synthesis with implications for research. Journal of Management, 30, 667-684.

Allen, D. G., Shore, L., & Griffeth, R.W. (2003). Integration of perceived organizational support into the turnover process. Journal of Management. 29, 99-118. Selected for a Society for Human Resource Management Research Translation (Feb, 2004).

Riordan, C. M., & Griffeth, R.W., & Weatherly, E. W. (2003). Age and work-related outcomes: The moderating effects of status characteristics. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 37-57.

Allen, D.G., & Griffeth, R. (2001). Test of a mediated performance-turnover relationship highlighting the moderating roles of visibility and reward contingency. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1014-1022.

Griffeth, R., & Gaertner, S. (2001). A role for equity theory in the turnover process: An empirical test. 31, 1017-1037, Journal of Applied Social Psychology.

Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26, 463-488

Johnson, J., Griffeth, R. W. & Griffin, M. (2000). Cognitive and affective determinants of high and low performing quitters and stayers. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 15, 339-415.

Research Books

R.W. Griffeth and Peter W. Hom (eds., 2004), Innovative Theory and Empirical Research on Employee Turnover. Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, Connecticut.

Griffeth, R.W. & Hom, P.W. (2001). Retaining valued employees. Sage Publications Inc.

Hom, P.W., & Griffeth, R.W. (1995). Employee turnover. Southwestern College Publishing Co. Inc.

Book Chapters (Since 2000)

Griffeth, R.W., Tenbrink, A., & Robinson, S. (in press). Recruitment Sources: A Review of Outcomes. Oxford Handbook of Recruitment. Oxford University Press.

Hagtvedt, R., Jones, G.T., Gaertner, S., & Griffeth, R.W. (2004). Dynamic systems in human resource management: Chaos theory and employee turnover. In R.W. Griffeth and Peter W. Hom (eds.), Innovative Theory and Empirical Research in Employee Turnover. Information age Publishing, Greenwich, Connecticut, pgs. 189-208.

Allen, D.G., Renn, R.W., & Griffeth, R.W. The impact of telecommuting design on social systems, self-regulation, and role boundaries (2003). In Ferris & Martocchio (Eds.). Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, Vol. 22. JAI Press, pgs. 125-163.

Selected Refereed Journals (before 2000)

Hom, P. W., Griffeth, R., Palich, L., & Bracker, J. (1999). Revisiting met expectations as a reason why realistic job previews work. Personnel Psychology, 52, 97-112.

Sager, J. K., Griffeth, R. W., & Hom, P. W. (1998). A comparison of structural models representing turnover cognitions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 53, 254-273.

Hom, P. W., Griffeth, R., Palich, L., & Bracker, J. (1998). An exploratory investigation into theoretical mechanisms underlying realistic job previews. Personnel Psychology, 51, 421-451.

Aquino, K., Griffeth, R.W., Allen, D.G., & Hom, P.W. (1997). An integration of justice constructs into the turnover process: A test of a referent cognitions model. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 1208-1227.

Griffeth R., Hom, P., Fink, L., & Cohen, D. (1997). Comparative tests of multivariate models of recruiting sources effects. Journal of Management, 23, 19-36.

Palich, L. E., Hom, P. W., & Griffeth, R. W. (1995). Managing in the international context: Testing the cultural universality of an organizational commitment model. Journal of Management, 21, 671-690.

Johnston, M., Griffeth, R., Burton, S. & Phillips, P. (1993). The effects of promotion on subsequent job attitudes and turnover: A quasi-experimental longitudinal study. Journal of Management, 19, 33-50.

Hom, P. W., Caranikas-Walker, F., & Prussia, G., Griffeth, R. W., (1992). A meta-analytical structural equations analysis of a model of employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 890-909. This paper received the 1993 Scholarly Achievement Award for the Human Resources Management Division of the Academy of Management.

Hom, P. W. & Griffeth, R. W. (1991). Structural equations modeling test of a turnover theory: Cross sectional and longitudinal analyses. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 350-366.

Kinicki, A., Lockwood, C., Hom, P., & Griffeth, R. (1990). Interview predictions of applicant qualifications and interviewer validity: Aggregate and individual analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 477-486.

Steel, R. P., Shane, G. S., & Griffeth, R. W. (1990). Correcting turnover statistics for comparative analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 179-187.

Steel, R. P., & Griffeth, R. W. (1989). The elusive relationship between estimates of perceived employment opportunity and ensuing turnover behavior: A methodological or conceptual artifact? Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 846-854.

Griffeth, R. W. Vecchio, R. P., Logan, J. W., Jr. (1989). Equity theory and interpersonal attraction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 394-401.

Kemery, E. R., Dunlap, W. P., & Griffeth, R. W. (1988). Correction for range restrictions in point biserial correlations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 688-691.

Bannister, B. D., & Griffeth, R. W. (1986). Applying a causal analytic framework to the Mobley, Horner, and Hollingsworth (1978) turnover model: A useful reexamination. Journal of Management, 12, 433 443.

Griffeth, R. W. (1985). Moderation of the effects of job enrichment by participation: A longitudinal field experiment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 35, 73 93.

Hom, P. W., Griffeth, R. W., & Sellaro, C. L. (1984). The validity of Mobley's (1977) model of employee turnover. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 141 174.

Mobley, W. H., Griffeth, R. W., Hand, H. H., & Meglino, B. M. (1979). Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 493 522.

Courses Taught


  • Organizational Behavior & Special Topics in Human Resources Management (Executive MBA)
  • Human Resources Management (MBA)
  • Human Resources Training and Development (MBA)
  • Organizational Behavior (MBA, doctoral)
  • Interpersonal Behavior (doctoral, on group)
  • Micro-Organizational Processes (doctoral, on motivation)
  • Research Methods (doctoral)
  • Applied Research Methods in HRM (MBA)
  • Multivariate Data Analysis (doctoral)
  • Organizational Behavior (doctoral)
  • Special Topics in Management-Employee Turnover (doctoral).


  • Personnel Psychology
  • Industrial Psychology
  • Social Psychology
  • Experimental Psychology Lab
  • Statistics Lab
  • Introduction to Human Resource Management
  • Human Resources Management
  • Advanced Human Resources Management
  • Personnel Management
  • Employee Selection and Placement,
  • Compensation
  • Organizational Behavior
  • Principles of Management
  • Freshman Orientation
  • Introduction to Business Administration.

Recent Grants

Griffeth, R.W. Assessed the quality of online course evaluation measures for the U.S. Navy, SPAWARITC, New Orleans, LA. 2005-2006.

Griffeth, R.W. & Witt, L.A. Conducted a Performance Management Study for the U.S. Navy, SPAWARITC, New Orleans, LA. 2004.

Griffeth, R.W. & Witt, L.A. Developed a Job/Task Analysis Process for the U.S. Navy, SPAWARITC, New Orleans, LA. 2003.

Developed and presented a training program on Organizational Change and Stress Management for the Regional Transit Authority (RTA), New Orleans, LA. 2003.

Scientific Review Panel, Human Resources Research Organization. 2002-2003

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