ChatGPT and AI, and other programs like it, require instructors to consistently re-evaluate course design, assignment design, course policies, rationales for academic integrity and transparency to students.Workshops, sessions and panels on this ChatGPT and AI can be found on the Programs and Events page.
AI and Teaching and Learning
What is Chat GPT?
ChatGPT is a chatbot, a program that simulates an online conversation using artificial intelligence (AI) technology. The GPT stands for Generative Pre-trained Transformer, and its release has higher education teaching and learning faculty, instructors and staff considering its role in and out of the classroom given the (relative) quality of its responses and potential misuse regarding academic integrity.
ChatGPT responds to natural language input. Like a chatbot, it will respond to your questions and perform tasks such as writing emails, computer code, essays ... even letters of recommendation.
ChatGPT works by processing huge samples of written language and then using algorithms to predict how words go together in different situations. This is apparently enough for it be able to write in a fairly natural-seeming way and to even seem to give sentient responses.
ChatGPT 3.5 was released in November 2023 and updated in March to ChatGPT 4, a language model which can interpret images. It was created by OpenAI, a nonprofit that also designed Dall-E-2, an AI art generator and Whisper an automatic speech recognition system. By January it was going viral in the news, and at the beginning of the spring semester 2023, academia took notice. Since then there have been thousands of news articles written about it and it has been covered in the Chronicle of Higher Education copiously.
-- Paul Shovlin, ChatGPT and AI Faculty Learning Community Facilitator at the 2023 Spotlight on Learning Conference
Sample OHIO ChatGPT Policies and Assignments
CTLA highly recommends all courses have a policy established on the use of AI. These three examples can be adapted to best meet an instructor's needs given their discipline and course level.
The following are additional examples of course policies and assignments developed during the spring semester 2023 ChatGPT and AI Faculty Learning Community.
- An interim course policy from an English course specifically addressing prohibited submission of ChatGPT text as one's own and requiring proper documentation of ChatGPT use.
- A first-year writing course policy.
- A general Artificial Intelligence course policy "including but not limited to ChatGTP, Moonbeam, or Bard AI, etc."
- A course policy for ENG 4600.
- A ChatGPT module-level policy and assignment for Understanding Appropriate and Inappropriate Uses of ChatGPT for Higher Education in the course Campus Environments.
- Sample activities for encouraging students to think about ethical uses of ChatGPT and an accompanying general course policy.
- A midterm essay in a Women and Gender Studies course with guidance on how to use ChatGPT.
- A physical science assignment allowing for use of AI.
- A sample assignment for a literature course using ChatGPT to generate a sonnet.
- A sample assignment on on writing ChatGPT-assisted argumentation.
- How to Get Away with Murder: Chat GPT as a Co-Conspirator, a ChatGPT-assisted assignment.
In addition, a College of Business Faculty Learning Community led by Professor of Management Mary Tucker developed, and COB now recommends, the following policy:
The College of Business Generative AI Use for Academic Work Policy. Use of Generative AI, such as ChatGPT and Microsoft Bing-Chat, must maintain the highest standards of academic integrity and adhere to the OU Code of Student Conduct.
The use of Generative AI should be seen as a tool to enhance academic research, not as a replacement for critical thinking and originality in assignments. Students are not permitted to submit assignments that have been fully or partially generated by AI unless explicitly stated in the assignment instructions. All work submitted must be the original work of the student. Any ideas garnered from Generative AI research must be acknowledged with proper in-text citation and reference. Students may be asked to save the AI chat as a PDF file for verification.
ChatGPT. (2023). A student agreement in university business course about proper use of ChatGPT in assignments, including APA citations. Retrieved from ChatGPT Online – AI Chatbot (chat-gpt.org).
Lou, H. (2023). Generative AI Use for Academic Work Policy.
Join the Conversation
Instructors can participate in the development of resources on this technology.
Share Teaching Tips
You are invited to submit a teaching tip (written or multimedia) sharing how you are approaching this new technology. We'll use your tips to further develop this website with OHIO case studies.
You may also contribute your perspectives through this survey comprising four open-ended questions regarding the benefits and challenges of teaching with ChatGPT and AI, your policies on its use and the implications you see for higher education generally.
AI/ChatGPT and Higher Education
Faculty, administrators, staff and students have become increasingly aware of the potential benefits and harms this AI poses in the classroom. At the beginning of the spring 2023 semester, no other technology has garnered as much attention.
Critical Issues Related to Technology and the Classroom
CTLA asked ChatGPT to identify the critical issues associated with the technology and the classroom. Here's ChatGPT's verbatim response (with our added bolding of text):
Plagiarism: ChatGPT can generate high-quality text that may resemble original work, making it difficult for educators to detect plagiarism.
Lack of originality: ChatGPT can generate text based on input, which may lead to a lack of originality in student work.
Reduced critical thinking: ChatGPT can generate text based on input, which may lead to a reduction in critical thinking among students.
Dependence on technology: ChatGPT may lead to a reliance on technology to generate text, which may reduce students' ability to think critically and independently.
Ethical concerns: The use of ChatGPT in the classroom may raise ethical concerns about the authenticity of student work and the role of technology in education.
Lack of human interaction: ChatGPT relies on a machine to generate text, which may lead to a lack of human interaction in the classroom.
Inadequate feedback: ChatGPT may not be able to provide adequate feedback on student work, which may hinder the learning process.
Privacy concerns: ChatGPT may be used to collect and analyze student data, which may raise privacy concerns for students and educators.
And when asked how ChatGPT might support learning, the following were outlined:
Generating personalized study materials: ChatGPT can be trained to generate personalized study materials based on a student's individual learning style and needs.
Providing answers to questions: ChatGPT can be used as a virtual tutor, providing answers to students' questions and helping them understand difficult concepts.
Enhancing language learning: ChatGPT can be used to support language learning by generating text in different languages and providing translations.
Generating creative writing prompts: ChatGPT can be used to generate creative writing prompts, helping students improve their writing skills and creativity.
Supporting research projects: ChatGPT can be used to generate research proposals, summaries, and literature reviews, helping students with their research projects.
Generating assessments and quizzes: ChatGPT can be used to generate assessments and quizzes, providing a personalized and adaptive learning experience for students.
CTLA Recommended Resources
Because this list will be updated frequently, we recommend contacting the staff at the Libraries should you need access to any of the content.
- Available AI Systems:
- Available Detection Applications (Use caution!)
- The AI Education Project (COMPLETELY FREE): https://www.aiedu.org/
- K-12 Instruction/Curriculum that can be easily adapted to any undergraduate introductory course; massive slide deck of 180 classroom warm up activities on AI; a Google account is needed to use all the forms/resources/materials
- The Modern Language Association's report, MLA-CCCC Joint Task Force on Writing and AI Working Paper: Overview of the Issues, Statement of Principles, and Recommendations
- Bryan Alexander’s Blog on Resources for Exploring ChatGPT and higher education: Like the CTLA website, this is a living document exploring implications and curating readings.
- ChatGPT Is So Bad at Essays That Professors Can Spot It Instantly: https://www.vice.com/en/article/epzjew/chatgpt-is-so-bad-at-essays-that-professors-can-spot-it-instantlyChatGPT Tips and Tricks
- ChatGPT will fundamentally change how we teach writing; that’s a good thing: https://edsource.org/2023/chatgpt-will-fundamentally-change-how-we-teach-writing-thats-a-good-thing/686768
- Resource from OLC Accelerate 2023, Master Class: Revolutionizing Course Content Creation With ChatGPT: An Interactive Workshop For Educators.
- Hard Fork by the NYT podcast on ChatGPT Transforms a Classroom. One of the most insightful commentaries on the role of this AI in the classroom comes from Cherie Shields, who teaches dual credit enrollment and high school writing courses. (But don’t worry, everybody is talking about it, just search your favorite pocasts for the topic.)
- I'm a student. You have no idea how much we’re using ChatGPT ….: https://www.chronicle.com/article/im-a-student-you-have-no-idea-how-much-were-using-chatgpt
- Louder, J. Teaching In The AI-Powered Future AI systems will give us personalized learning experiences, tutoring systems and more robust VR/AR systems.
- National Public Radio on a ChatGPT detection app developed by a 22-year-old Princeton student.
- Perkins, M., Roe, J., Postma, D., McGaughran, J., & Hickerson, D. (2023). Game of Tones: Faculty detection of GPT-4 generated content in university assessments. arXiv preprint arXiv:2305.18081.
- Professor Flunks All His Students After ChatGPT Falsely Claims It Wrote Their Papers: https://www.rollingstone.com/culture/culture-features/texas-am-chatgpt-ai-professor-flunks-students-false-claims-1234736601/
- Students are using AI for more than just your course: https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2023/06/01/students-chatgpt-ai-tools/
- Wolfram, S. What Is ChatGPT Doing … and Why Does It Work?(2023). – This is a primer on how large language models (LLMs) work and how many of these early AI systems are working.
- UNESCO Quick Start Guide: ChatGPT and Artificial Intelligence in higher education: https://rb.gy/2kbq
- Published in April 2023; full of great information for higher education institutions; breaks down ways to incorporate AI in the classroom, with research projects and reviews ethical implications and ways to be more proactive with AI use in higher education.
Approaches to Using ChatGPT
Become familiar with its uses in your discipline and in your courses.
The implications of ChatGPT differ for various disciplines. Part of evaluating the value or challenge of a particular technology involves understanding how instructors and students might use it in the classroom or laboratory setting. How does ChatGPT and other AI differ from what is already available to students via the internet or in other support services and programs? How might it actually support your instruction?
Reflect on your current concerns related to teaching and learning and/or academic integrity.
What worries or excites you about this new technology from a teaching and learning standpoint? It would be helpful to list the positive and negative implications of something like ChatGPT. If your greatest concern is around academic integrity, for example, you might want to examine your graded activities and assessments for susceptibility. If you are excited about how ChatGPT can be used to evaluate aspects of student writing so you don’t have to, how can you incorporate its use into an assignment?
Identify current assignments and assessments where students might leverage ChatGPT.
New technology that may affect how your students learn is worth considering in light of your currently planned activities, assignments and assessments.
- Are the questions you pose in a discussion board easily answered by ChatGPT? Are they worth keeping if so?
- Can ChatGPT or another program take multiple choice questions with great accuracy? If so, are you asking for memorization of an essential and scaffolded knowledge set? And if that is the case, how should you best test for that?
- Do you teach coding? How might ChatGPT impact particular assignments?
Be strategic and transparent in adjustments you choose to make.
The more transparent you are in developing assignments, exams or other graded activities, the more students engage with those activities. CTLA recommends Transparency in Learning and Teaching (TILT) frameworks to support students’ meaningful engagement with instructional activities and most effective use of technology.
Engage students in the conversation and course design around new technologies.
Ask your students about their use of AI in learning. How does it help them learn? How does it hinder their learning? How are they and their colleagues using ChatGPT? Do they have concerns about ethical use or academic integrity? Students may be the best resource for feedback on how to adjust or refine instructional strategies to support their learning.
Assess the effectiveness of new policies and instructional practices.
If you make a significant change to an instructional strategy or assignment, consider how you will assess its effectiveness. To gather student feedback on their experiences or a course policy change, a short survey or question at the end of the assignment might provide valuable information. Maybe students perform differently on an essay assignment or a set of test questions. CTLA is always here to help you strategize on how to best assess the impact of instructional change on student learning.
Recognize that ChatGPT and AI detection is challenging at best.
Current applications that support detection of ChatGPT or AI-generated text are not highly reliable. The best detection is to avoid having to detect use of ChatGPT and AI. Most important, it is not effective to ask ChatGPT if it generated text. (CTLA colleagues have done so, and ChatGPT has claimed authorship of original work.)