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Zanesville Campus Landscape Master Plan

Zanesville Campus Master Plan

 

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Aerial photo, Ohio University Zanesville, Zane State College existing campus

Phase Plan

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The Master Plan was subdivided into three phases. Components of each phase are outlined below.

Phase I - Passive Park

Nature Trails: Footpaths explore each ecological zone
Separate parking area for park visitors
Elevated boardwalk through sensitive areas and foot bridges across Joe's Run
Ecological rehabilitation program
Educational extension of classroom
Interpretive program to highlight local ecology and restoration efforts


Phase II - Campus Entrance Redesign

Redesign of entry to enhance arrival experience
Incorporation of design elements provide cohesive character to streetscape
Turn lane controls traffic on S.R. 146
Entry improvements define the "Image Landscape" for dual campus


Phase III - Academic Campus

Stronger internal character and addition of functional event spaces
Addition of landscape trees throughout campus improves microclimate conditions, creates a more comfortable scale for pedestrians and provides a unifying element for the academic campus
Elimination of excess parking
 

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Existing Conditions & Analysis
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The existing campus conditions were evaluated on their overall contribution to the campus aesthetic and function, as well as the visitor's experience. Critical deficits include:


Lack of unifying element

Lack of central quad feature

Underutilized parking lot

Excessive number of parking spaces

Poor presentation of Herrold Hall

Ambiguous streetscape

Location of entrance relates poorly with campus whole

Lack of continuity, visual identity and arrival character

Absence of turning lane creates congestion of traffic on S.R. 146

Vegetation deficit allows disruptive wind patterns across campus

Greater potential of vehicular/pedestrian accidents due to pedestrian traffic crossing street

 


 

Campus Plan

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The campus plan showcases and unifies the campus through landscape elements, realignment of vehicular routes and addition of more functional spaces


Street trees enhance character

Central gathering area

Conversion of underutilized parking area to landscaped greenspace enhances the quad's utility and brings better sense of balance to area

Addition of interior parking lot trees provide shade and enhance continuity with common quad

Realignment of access road separates parking traffic from pedestrians

Amphitheater with vegetation backdrop, provides gathering space for events, terminus for entry drive

Split realignment of entry enhances arrival character, directs traffic and relates to Herrold Hall

Realignment of pedestrian path relates to architecture

Tree mass mitigates powerful winds

Addition of turn lane minimizes disruption of S.R. 146

Perforations in tree mass allow views to campus interior from S.R. 146

Passive Park parking


 

Phase III Academic Campus Plan Alternative

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The campus plan alternative is a more landscape-dependant scheme that involves fewer physical changes to the existing campus layout. Key improvements include:


Passive Park parking area

Landscape improvements

Structured landscape

Retain existing handicapped parking lot

Redesigned entry to Herrold Hall, extend landscape to building

Existing landscape adjacent to Herrold Hall

Solid tree mass

Clear zone for geodetic survey marker

Black 4 rail fence spans length of campus along S.R. 146

Realignment of entry road

Divided S.R. 146 at entry point to campus

 


 

Phase I Passive Park Plan

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The Passive Park is a natural area designed for low-impact recreation and educational opportunities. Some of the features include:


Joe's Run

Nature Trail

Lookout Point

Restored borrow pit area

Tributary

Bridge

Floodplain

Steep ravine slopes

Stormwater Drainage

Bridge

Meadow buffer

Nature trail

Expanded tree buffer

Trail parking

Joe's Run

Boardwalk


 

Ecological Zones

 


Zones are characterized by their unique combinations of biological and physical elements that support their respective ecological communities.


Zones are based on:


Topography

Slope

Aspect

Soils

Competition for resources

Level of disturbance

Existing conditions

 

Zones


Michael Ecker, a horticulturist from the Dawes Arboretum and Jennifer Gelb from Myers Schmalenberger, conducted a field assessment survey on July 21. The purpose of the field assessment was to determine the current ecological conditions of the proposed passive park area and to evaluate the placement of the planned nature trail.


The approximately 70-acre area consists of mostly secondary growth forest, a deep ravine and Joe's Run, a sandy-bottom stream. The predominant issue concerning the area is the abundance of invasive species.


Several different areas or "zones" were identified based on their distinct ecological character. Each zone supports a slightly different community of organisms. The local flora plays a major role in ecological function of each community. A well-balanced community functioning in harmony with other communities benefits the larger whole. It is important, therefore, to provide and preserve conditions that foster native plant populations. Unlike non-native species, native plants are naturally adapted to their respective environments. Therefore, an ecological community built upon native species will be more inclined to remain balanced and healthy than one infiltrated with invasive materials.


The criteria used to determine the different zones include topography, slope, aspect, soils, competition for resources, disturbance and drainage. The slope and aspect, competition, and disturbance potential were the most discernable factors from our research of the site. As a result, nine distinct zones were identified.


Edge

Ravine

Meadow

Riparian

Upland

Upland clearing

Disturbed woodland

Slope face- North

Slope face-West


The following paragraphs detail the key characteristics and issues as well as the native plant species most suitable to each zone given these factors.


Edge

Characterized by thin strips of residual vegetation. Ratio of edge to interior is high. Often associated with fencerows, division between agricultural fields, etc. Characterized by scrub growth, early successional species, and large overstory trees. Significant exposure to sunlight and winds. Common for invasive species to dominate.


Characteristic Vegetation: Oaks, Sumac, Raspberries, Hackberry, Box elder, Black locust, Invasive spp.


Recommendations: Reducing the amount of edge improves overall quality of the woodland. Interior habitat generally supports more sensitive organisms. Expand width of edge with scattered planting of shade trees offset from the strip. Allow understory to develop while removing invasive species manually as needed.


Species to Preserve and Introduce: Oak (White, Pin, Shingle, Bur), Black Cherry, Sassafras, Hickory spp., White Ash, Serviceberry, Chokeberry, Gray dogwood, Bottlebrush buckeye, Sumac, Nannyberry


Ravine

Characterized by steep slopes, dense shade, and well-drained soils with a thin layer organic soil layer. The ravine is a sensitive zone because of its significant sloping terrain. Erosion appears to be affecting its current condition. Adjacent land use is likely influencing local runoff. Increased volume and redirected flow are jeopardizing the ravine community because of the erosion of the organic soil layer and structural soils. Efforts to protect and enhance near off-site vegetation should be made for preventative purposes. Establishing a denser understory will help to stabilize conditions. The delicate soils can further be protected by raised boardwalk systems that terraces to the stream elevation.


Recommended trees and shrubs include: Witch-hazel, Spicebush, Pagoda dogwood, Ninebark, Chokeberry, Amelanchier, Yellow birch, Paw paw, Lance leaf buckthorn, Butternut, Chestnut, Green Ash


Recommended herbaceous plants: Wild ginger, Hepatica, Wild geranium, Maidenhair fern, Bloodroot, Trout lily, Solomon's seal, Baneberry


Meadow

The two areas depicted as meadow are similar in that they are composed primarily of forbs and grasses. The underlying topography is different, however, which heavily influences the vegetation. The larger, western meadow sits on well-drained soil, with full sun. The smaller eastern meadow is tucked up against two other zones. As a result the border where the three zones meet provides greater protection and morning shade. This is more suitable for species like monarda and turtlehead. In addition, the area sits in a slight depression and has less drainage. These wetter conditions may be suitable to perennials like Joe-Pye weed and cardinal flower that are tolerant of wetter conditions.


Transforming the areas from the more generic meadow to prairie involves significant resources. The removal of all existing vegetation would be critical-a task of significant time and maintenance. Leaving the areas as they are with a regular mowing is sufficient. Mowing will control woody materials and keep perennials more vigorous. If resources become available, consider taking the steps necessary for a complete prairie restoration project. The process and resulting ecological system would offer a valuable educational opportunity.


Recommended meadow species for preservation and introduction: New England Aster, Butterfly Weed, Indigo, Coreopsis, Coneflower, Beardtongue, Black-eyed Susan, Goldenrod, Bee Balm, Liatris, Joe-Pye Weed, Sneeze weed, Turtlehead, Lead plant, Rattlesnake master, Compass plant, Purple meadow rue, Prairie dock, Obedient plant, Culver's root, Spiderwort, Rosin weed


Riparian

The riparian corridor is a dynamic environment. Conditions appear to fluctuate rapidly with weather events. Vegetation suitable for the zone should be capable of withstanding fluctuating water levels.


Presence of mature riparian trees indicates an established ecosystem with species including sycamore, box elder, sassafras and honeylocust.


Recommended trees and shrubs include: River birch, Cottonwood, Silver maple, Red-osier dogwood, Buttonbush, Water hyacinth, Virginia bluebells, Monkeyflower, True-forget-me-not, Big blue lobelia, Cardinal flower, Turtlehead


Upland

The upland is characterized by well-drained soils, greater exposure to sun and wind, fewer overstory trees, and drier conditions.


Recommended trees and shrubs include: Hickory, Oak (Pin, Black, Post, Scarlet, White), Chestnut, Pine (Yellow, Pitch), Wild Rose, Coralberry, Juniper, Hawthorn, Honeylocust, Black locust, Buckeye, Black-haw viburnum, Maple-leaf viburnum, Hazelwood


Upland Clearing

The upland clearing is unique because of its previous use as a borrow pit. The openness and steep terrain of the zone make it vulnerable to forceful rain and winds and intense temperatures. The fragile soils have little organic material and are susceptible to erosion as evidenced by washouts and gullies. Efforts to stabilize the soils should continue with the addition of plant material capable of withstanding the harsh conditions. Many prairie plants are suitable to these conditions and should be consider as immediate means to the ultimate goal of restoring the hillside to a forested upland. Views should be considered when planting any trees capable of reaching significant height, as they will obstruct views to the surrounding landscape.


Recommended trees and shrubs: Pine (Pin. Post, Black, Scarlet, White), Sumac, Bayberry, Raspberry, Juniper


Recommended perennials: Black-eyed Susan, Liatris, Coreopsis, Aster, Big bluestem, Little bluestem, Goldenrod, Lead plant, Milkweed


Disturbed Woodland

The area is characterized by its significant population of invasive species. The exposure to off-site land use heavily influences its character. The golf course directly to the north and several residences to the east have impacted the composition of the zone. The area is thick with multi-flora rose, Japanese honeysuckle, and privet. These suburban landscape species have made their way in to the area through the edges of the woodland. Residual native species are still present but are severely threatened because of the prolific nature of the invasive species.


Recommended trees and shrubs to preserve and introduce: Beech, Tuliptree, Spicebush, Sugar maple, Sycamore, Native ferns, Flowering dogwood, Arrowwood viburnum


Slope Face-North and Slope Face-West

Both slope-faces are characterized by significant slope, a mature overstory, and protected microclimate. The northern slope will tend to be cooler and moister than the western slope, but both are quite similar in composition. The zones are similar to that of the disturbed woodland, but have been separated because of level of invasive species present in the disturbed woodland. The slope zones are both situated between wooded zones, which provides an added layer of protection. There are also similarities between the slope zones and the ravine zone. Many of the herbaceous materials occurring in one, will be found in the other.


Recommended trees, shrubs, and perennials for introduction and preservation: Sugar maple, Beech, Basswood, Nannyberry, American cranberry bush, White ash, Jack-in-the-pulpit, Trillium, Hepatica, Wild geranium, Wild ginger, Pennsylvania sedge, Christmas fern, Maidenhair fern



Rehabilitation for Ecological Zones

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Priority based on zone by zone basis.


Criteria include:


Proximity to academic campus

Connection to other zones

Distance to nature trail

Current ecological conditions

The primary objective for each zone is to achieve a state of ecological balance. In order to best determine how this objective may be met, a committee of experts and other interested parties should be organized drawing from both the local academic and professional community. Once a methodology is devised, students or service groups could conduct research projects or fulfill community service objectives.


Invasive Species

Characteristics and Methods of Control


Japanese Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica


Description:


Semi-evergreen vine with fragrant, white tubular flowers that grow in pairs

Black to purple berries

Spread by birds

Common to fields, forest openings and edges, along fencerows and roadsides

Problem:


Spreads rapidly

Overtops and smothers surrounding small trees and shrubs

Crawls along ground until light levels increase and then grows up through canopy

Control:

Watch for and immediately destroy small plants. Once plants are established most effective control is foliar application of 1.5% glyphosate herbicide shortly after first killing frost when natives are dormant. The temperature should be near or preferably above freezing. Applications within two days of the first killing frost and before the first hard frost are most effective. Pulling, cutting, mowing, burning generally stimulate dense re-growth.


Multi-flora Rose Rosa multiflora


Description:


Large vigorous shrub with 10' long arching stems and clusters of single, 1" wide white flowers that appear all over in June, followed by red hips in August. The shrub has 5-10, 1" leaflets and stout thorns

Spread by birds

Problem:


Forms dense impenetrable thickets

Control:

Regular mowing in grassy areas will keep growth in check. Medium to large shrubs need to be removed with a weed pulling tool or dug out by hand after the thorny tops are cut away. Treating the stumps with glyphosate herbicide also help to prevent resprouting.


Privet Ligustrum spp.


Description:


Persistent black, berry-like fruits

Stout, many-branched, deciduous shrub that grows to 15' tall

Leaves grow opposite along stems

Clusters of small, white flowers are produced from May through June

Problem:


Extremely aggressive, forming dense impenetrable thickets crowd that crowd out more desirable species

Privet invades natural area river bottoms, open woods, fencerows and roadsides

Spread by suckers and birds

Control:

Remove small specimens by hand. For larger shrubs apply glyphosate herbicide to the foliage for actively growing materials and to the stump of freshly cut wood.


Source

Brooklyn Botanic Garden's Invasive Plants: Weeds of the Global Garden, editors John M. Randall and Janet Marinelli, 1996.