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This publication has been designed to help you prepare manuscript copy for the Office of University Publications. It is divided into three sections: the "Guide to Style," which answers questions about standardizing punctuation, usage according to adopted university style, and a list of the official degree titles granted by Ohio University. For questions not covered, consult The Chicago Manual of Style or the college edition of Webster's New World Dictionary.
If you are considering submitting material for publication in the near future, we encourage you to make an appointment with the director to discuss various aspects of the intended publication. To make an appointment, or if you have questions concerning publications, call our office at 740-593-1920 between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday.



1. Periods

1.1 With abbreviations
Use periods when abbreviating academic degrees.
Ex. Dr. Bond received her A.B., M.A., and Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania.

And with lower case abbreviations:

Ex. As an Honors Tutorial College student, you must maintain a 3.0 g.p.a.
The workshop will be held from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m.

Periods are not used with acronyms, which are upper case.

Ex. WOUB, OPIE, CBA, ROTC, ISFS
(See also 10. Abbreviations)

1.2 With run-in heads
Use a period when the heading is at the beginning or a paragraph:

Ex. Graduate Survey Requirement. Each candidate will complete at least one graduate survey course.

1.3 With lists
Listed information conveyed in sentence form should be punctuated with periods.

Ex. To participate in commencement:
1. You will need to apply for graduation by the March 1st deadline.
2. You will need to arrange to rent or purchase a graduation gown.


2. Commas

2.1 With a series
Use a comma before the words "and" and "or" in a series of three or more, e.g., Athens, Lancaster, and Chillicothe.

2.2 With numbers
Place a comma after digits signifying thousands: 1,150 students, 1,100 SAT score; except when reference is made to temperature: 3200 degrees.

2.3 With quotations
Follow a statement that introduces a direct quotation of one or more paragraphs with a comma. But use a colon after "as follows."

Ex. Dorothy Parker's epitaph reads, "Pardon my dust."
Dorothy Parker's epitaph reads as follows: "Pardon my dust."

2.4 With introductory words
Introductory words such as "to wit," "namely," "i.e.," "e.g.," and "viz" should be immediately preceded and followed by a comma.

Ex. International students are required to submit proof of identity, e.g., a passport, immunization record, a visa, or some other form of identification.

2.5 With dates
When writing a date, place a comma between the day, if given, and the year, but do not place a comma between the month and year when the day is not mentioned.

Ex. November 1945

2.6 With academic quarters and terms
The comma is omitted when citing academic quarters or terms.

Ex. spring 1991
fall 1990


3. Hyphens

3.1 Hyphenating compound words
Use a hyphen in compound adjectives that come before the words they modify.

Ex. full-time student
grade-point average
upper-division course
part-time faculty
out-of-state tuition

3.2 Hyphenation with prefixes
Words beginning with "non," "anti," "sub," "co," and "pre" usually can be combined without a hyphen.

Ex. nontraditional, nondenominational, coeducational, antinuclear, substandard, premedicine, prephysical therapy, precollege

Use the nonhyphenated spelling if either spelling is acceptable.

Exceptions
Hyphenate words when a prefix causes confusion in reading the word that follows.

Ex. pre-enroll, not preenroll
re-enroll, not reenroll
pre-engineering, not preengineering
co-op, not coop
non-alumni, not nonalumni

3.3
Hyphens with regional campus names
Hyphenate the names of regional campuses as follows:

Ohio University-Chillicothe Campus
Ohio University-Eastern Campus
Ohio University-Lancaster Campus
Ohio University-Southern Campus
Ohio University-Zanesville Campus

3.4 Hyphens with telephone numbers
Area codes and other codes for telephone numbers are to be set off from the phone number with a hyphen.

Ex. 740-593-1920
800-265-3756


4. Quotation Marks

4.1 Used with other punctuation
Quotation marks should be placed outside a period and comma, but inside a colon or semicolon. They should also be set inside exclamation points and interrogation marks that are not part of the quotation.

Ex. See Richter's comments on "journalistic expertise," in the second section of this book.

The board had only two reservations about "the proposal": the cost and the time needed to implement changes.

4.2 Quotes within quotes
Use single quotation marks for quotations printed within other quotations.

Ex. The nonconformist student replied, "I follow Emerson's dictum, `A foolish consistency is the petty hobgoblin of small minds,' to its logical extreme."

4.3 Block quotations
If several paragraphs are to be quoted, use quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph, but at the end of the last paragraph only.


5. Apostrophes

5.1 With dates
In making the plural of dates, do not use an apostrophe.

Ex. in the early 1800s

5.2 With class year
Use the apostrophe to punctuate years of college classes.

Ex. Class of '78

5.3 With degrees
Associate's, bachelor's, and master's degrees, when used generically, should be written with an "'s."

Ex. master's degrees, not masters' degrees
associate's degree, not associate degree

5.4 With possessives
The possessive case of singular nouns is formed by adding "'s"; the possessive of plural nouns by adding an apostrophe only.

Ex. the horse's mouth, the puppies' tails; the children's books

The general rule above also covers singular nouns and proper names ending in "s" (with the exception of "Jesus" and "Moses," which add just the apostrophe):

Ex. Burns's poetry
the pass's restrictions
Dickens's novels

5.5 With possessives in titles
The apostrophe is dropped from possessives when they become part of official designations or titles.

Ex. Ohio University Visitors Center
Dean of Students Office
Upperclass Deans Scholarship

An exception to this style is "Women's Studies," which retains its apostrophe.