punishment and society

 

style guide of the american sociological association

 

For all papers written in this course, you will use the ASA format for your references. This format is used by authors who are preparing manuscripts for publication in many different sociology and criminology journals.

Citations in Text:

The first part of this page shows you how you should cite an author in context.

The Basic form for citations in the text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. You also need to include the page number when you quote directly from the work or refer to specific passages.

There are two main formats for in-text citations. First, you sometimes my include the author's name in the text:

 
 
 

Mills (1959) argues that we all must cultivate a sociological imagination.

      

 
 
 

Many times, the athor's name is NOT used in the text:

 
 
 

It has been shown that an inmate's identity changes throughout one's prison career (Jones and Schmid 1991).

      

 
 
 

If you are quoting the author(s) directly, (a) any words taken directly from a source MUST BE IN QUOTES, and (b) you must include the page number where the quote can be found in the source (unless that source is a single web page*). This format attributes the quote to the correct author(s), and provides the page number where the quote can be found. With this information, and the information provided in your reference list, readers could go to this source, and read the quote in the context of the original material, if they so wanted.

 
 
 

Manjoo (2008:14) argues that pepole "who skillfully manipulate today's fragmented media landscape can dissemble, distort, exaggerate, fake--essentially, they can lie--to more people, more effectively than ever before."

      

 
 
 

There are a few different ways to provide this information. Notice where the period to end the sentence is placed in the following example:

 
 
 

One author has argued that pepole "who skillfully manipulate today's fragmented media landscape can dissemble, distort, exaggerate, fake--essentially, they can lie--to more people, more effectively than ever before" (Manjoo 2008:14).

      

 
 
 

NEVER do this:

 
 
 

In a journal article I found by Kent R. Kerley, Todd L. Matthews, and Jeffrey T. Schultz from 2005 called Participation in Operation Starting Line, Experience of Negative Emotions, and Incidence of Negative Behavior from the Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology Journal find a relationship between participation in a faith-based program in prison and incidence of negative behaviors.

      

 
 
 

Do THIS instead:

 
 
 

Kerley and his colleagues (2005:410) find a relationship between participation in "Operation Starting Line," a faith-based program in prison and incidence of negative behaviors.

      

 
 
 

What do I do when there is more than one author???

For two authors, you include the last names of both authors:

(Jones and Schmid 1991)

If your source has three or more authors, use the following format:

(Hagan et al. 1995)

      

 
 

The Reference List!

The second part of this page shows you how you should format your reference list.

GENERAL NOTES ON YOUR REFERENCE LIST

  • References follow the text and footnotes, and should start on a clean page with the heading: References

  • All references cited in the text must be listed in your reference list, and any reference in your reference list must be cited in your paper.

  • Unlike the text of your document, the references should be single-spaced.

  • List references in alphabetical order by FIRST author’s last name.

  • Only the FIRST AUTHOR's name is reversed (last name, first name) in your reference list. All other authors' names are "normal (firstname lastname)

  • Use hanging indention (if a reference will be on two or more lines, be sure to indent the second line (see below).

  • Arrange multiple items by the same author in order by year of publication, earliest year first.

  • Use six hyphens and a period(------.) in place of the name(s) for repeated authorship.

  • Distinguish works by the same author in the same year by adding letters (e.g. 1993a, 1993b, 1993c).

  • Use italics for book and periodical titles (underline if italics are not available).

  • If no date is available use "N.d." in place of the date.

  • Include both city and state for place of publication using U.S. Postal Code abbreviations (such as OH). For foreign cities, provide the name of the country.

  • SPECIFIC EXAMPLES

     
     

    Books: The basic form for a book entry is:

    1. Author’s last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial (ending in a period). In the case of multiple authors, the second (or more) author's name is provided with his/her first name, middle initial, and last name, with no commas in between. The "authors section" should end in a period.

    2. Then, the yar of publication followed by a period.

    3. Next, Title of book italicized, and ending with a period.

    4. Finally, the place of publication, followed by a colon, and the name of the publisher ending with a period.

    In the following examples, note the use of hanging indentation throughout for multi-line references.

     
     
     

    Gleick, James. 1999. Faster: The Acceleration of Just About
          Everything
    . New York, NY: Vintage Books.

    Alwin, Duane F., Ronald L. Cohen, and Theodore M. Newcomb. 1991.
          Political Attitdues Over the Life Course: The Bennington Women
          after Fifty Years
    . Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press.

     
     
     

    A section or chapter of an edited book:

     
     
     

    Nathan, Peter E. and Raymond S. Niaura. 1987. "Prevention of Alcohol
          Problems." Pp. 333-354 in Treatment and Prevention of Alcohol
          Problems: A Resource Manual,
    edited by W.M. Cox. Orlando, FL:
          Academic Press, Inc.

     
     
     

    A book with no author:

     
     
     

    Manual of Style. 1993. 14th ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    List books with no author alphabetically by the first significant word in the title.

     
     
     

    Academic Journal Articles: The basic form for a journal article entry is:

    1. Author’s last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial ending with a period.Author’s last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial (ending in a period). In the case of multiple authors, the second (or more) author's name is provided with his/her first name, middle initial, and last name, with no commas in between. The "authors section" should end in a period.

    2. Then, the yar of publication followed by a period.

    3. "Title of article" in quotations and ending with a period inside the closing quotation mark.

    4. Name of journal in italics

    5. Finally, volume number followed by colon, page number(s) and period. Use the issue number following the volume number in parenthesis or exact date for journal article prior to the volume number for journals that do not number pages consecutively within a volume.

    In the following examples, note the use of hanging indentation throughout for multi-line references.

     
     

    Journal Articles in Print:

    Even if you obtained this article from the World Wide Interwebs, you still treat it as an article IN PRINT. Only articles that exist solely on the web are cited as web sources (the format of which is below). Otherwise, use these forms for academic journal articles.

     
     

    One Author:

     
     
     

    Garcia, Alma M. 1998. "An Intellectual Odyssey: Chicana/Chicano
          Studies Moving into the Twenty-first Century." Journal of
          American Ethnic History
    18(3):109-130.

     
     
     

    Two or more authors:

     
     
     

    Exum, William H., Robert J. Menges, Bari Watkins, and Patricia G. Berglund.
          1984. "Making it at the top: Women and Minority Faculty in the Academic
          Labor Market." American Behavioral Scientist 27:301-324.

     
     
     

    Newspapers, Magazines, Government Reports, etc. IN PRINT
    The basic form for these sources is:

    1. Author’s last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial ending with a period.Author’s last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial (ending in a period). In the case of multiple authors, the second (or more) author's name is provided with his/her first name, middle initial, and last name, with no commas in between. The "authors section" should end in a period (as with books and academic journal articles).

    2. Then, the yar of publication followed by a period.

    3. "Title of article" in quotations and ending with a period inside the closing quotation mark.

    4. Name of newspaper/magazine in italics

    5. Finally, date of publication followed by a comma, and the page number(s) of the article in the publication

    In the following examples, note the use of hanging indentation throughout for multi-line references.

     
     

    Magazine:

    Even if you obtained this article from the World Wide Interwebs, you still treat it as an article IN PRINT. Only articles that exist solely on the web are cited as web sources (the format of which is below). Otherwise, use these forms for academic journal articles.

     
     
     

    Jana, Reena. 2000. "Preventing culture clashes - As the IT Workforce
          Grows More Diverse, Managers mustImprove Awareness Without
          Creating Inconsistency." InfoWorld, April 24, pp. 95.

     
     
     

    Newspaper:

    Even if you obtained this article from the World Wide Interwebs, you still treat it as an article IN PRINT. Only articles that exist solely on the web are cited as web sources (the format of which is below). Otherwise, use these forms for academic journal articles.

     
     
     

    Rimland, Bernard. 2000. "Do children's shots invite autism?" Los Angeles
           Times,
    April 26, 2010, A13.

     
     
     

    Internet/Electronic Sources:

    Use these styles for sources that are ONLY available online. If they are Web-based versions of PRINTED MATERIALS, you use one of the forms above.

     
     

    Web-based Newspapers and Blogs:

    Use these styles for sources that are ONLY available online. If they are Web-based versions of PRINTED MATERIALS, you use one of the forms above.

     
     
     

    Clary, Mike. 2000. "Vieques Protesters Removed Without Incident."
          Los Angeles Times, May 5, 1989. Retrieved August 12, 2000
          (http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/updates/lat_vieques000505.htm).

     
     
     

    Web-based Journals:

    Use these styles for sources that are ONLY available online. If they are Web-based versions of PRINTED MATERIALS, you use one of the forms above.

     
     
     

    Smith, Herman W. and Takako Nomi. 2000. "Is Amae the Key to
          Understanding Japanese Culture?." Electronic Journal of Sociology
          
    5:1. Retrieved May 5, 2000.
          (http://www.sociology.org/content/vol005.001/smith-nomi.html).

     
     
     

    Web-based info: Blogs, Wikipeadia, etc.:

    Use these styles for sources that are ONLY available online. If they are Web-based versions of PRINTED MATERIALS, you use one of the forms above.

     
     
     

    American Sociological Association. 2000. "Scholarship of Teaching
          and Learning Workshop." Washington, DC: American
          Sociological Association, Retrieved May 5, 2000.
          (http://www.asanet.org/members/socwkshp.html).

     
     
     

    Government Documents:

    Since the nature of public documents is so varied, the form of entry for documents cannot be standardized. The essential rule is to provide sufficient information so that the reader can locate the reference easily. For example see the following:

     
     
     

    United States. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development. 1999. Rehab
          a home with HUD's 203(k) : HUD and FHA are on your side.

          Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development.

     

     
     
     
     

    Harris, Phil, Brian Lockwood, and Liz Mengers. 2009. "Defining and
          Measuring Recidivism." Council of Juvenile
          Correctional Administrators:Braintree,MA

     
     
     

    Dissertations, Theses, and other Documents Stored at Universities

     
     
     

    Valencia, Albert. 1995. "An examination of selected characteristics of Mexican-
          American battered women and implications for service providers."
          Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Education, University of the Pacific,
          Stockton, CA.

     
     
     

    For other more information on sources not covered here please see ASA Style Guide (ref desk HM 73 A54 1997), or make an appointment to see Craig.