What is intellectual property?

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Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.

IP is divided into two categories:  Industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of source; and Copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs.  Rights related to copyright include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in their radio and television programs.  

(from http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/en/)

Here, we only want to focus on the academic perspective of part of Intellectual property, so we are going to discuss  Copyright and Plagiarism more in-depth.

Definitions

First, as always, let's look at what dictionaries tell us about its definitions.
Copyright
  • the exclusive legal right , given to an originator or an assignee to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical material, and to authorize others to do the same(-oxford)
  • the exclusive right to make copies, license, and otherwise exploit a literary, musical, or artistic work, whether printed, audio, video, etc.: works granted such right by law on or after January 1, 1978, are protected for the lifetime of the author or creator and for a period of 50 years after his or her death. (dictionary.com)
  • the exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish, sell, or distribute the matter and form of something (as a literary, musical, or artistic work)-Merriam Webster
Plagiarism
  • the practice of taking someone else‘s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own.  (Oxford)
  •  the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of themas one's own original work. (dictionary.com)
  • From  Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
    • to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own
    • to use (another's production) without crediting the source
    • to commit literary theft
    • to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.
Also, some other authentic government sources.
Copyright
A form of protection provided by the laws of the United States for "original works of authorship" including literary, dramatic, musical, architectural, cartographic, choreographic, pantomimic, pictorial, graphic, sculptural, and audiovisual creations. "Copyright" literally means the right to copy, but has come to mean that body of exclusive rights granted by law to copyright owners for protection of their work. Copyright protection does not extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, title, principle, or discovery. Similarly, names, titles, short phrases, slogans, familiar symbols, mere variations of typographic ornamentation, lettering, coloring, and listings of contents or ingredients are not subject to copyright. (from http://www.copyright.gov/help/faq/definitions.html

Plagiarism
There are four common forms of plagiarism:

§  The duplication of an author's words without quotation marks and accurate references or footnotes.

§  The duplication of author's words or phrases with footnotes or accurate references, but without quotation marks.

§  The use of an author's ideas in paraphrase without accurate references or footnotes.

§  Submitting a paper in which exact words are merely rearranged even though footnoted.

The following is an example of a state statute dealing with plagiarism (http://definitions.uslegal.com/p/plagiarism/)

Forms of Copyright and Plagirism

(from some other authentic government sources.)
Copyright
A form of protection provided by the laws of the United States for "original works of authorship" including literary, dramatic, musical, architectural, cartographic, choreographic, pantomimic, pictorial, graphic, sculptural, and audiovisual creations. "Copyright" literally means the right to copy, but has come to mean that body of exclusive rights granted by law to copyright owners for protection of their work. Copyright protection does not extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, title, principle, or discovery. Similarly, names, titles, short phrases, slogans, familiar symbols, mere variations of typographic ornamentation, lettering, coloring, and listings of contents or ingredients are not subject to copyright. (from http://www.copyright.gov/help/faq/definitions.html

Plagiarism
There are four common forms of plagiarism:

§  The duplication of an author's words without quotation marks and accurate references or footnotes.

§  The duplication of author's words or phrases with footnotes or accurate references, but without quotation marks.

§  The use of an author's ideas in paraphrase without accurate references or footnotes.

§  Submitting a paper in which exact words are merely rearranged even though footnoted.

This is an example of a state statute dealing with plagiarism 

Quotes and Discussions 

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  • The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources. 
    Albert Einstein
  • The seed ye sow, another reaps; The wealth ye find, another keeps; The robes ye weave, another wears; The arms ye forge, another bears. 
    Percy Bysshe Shelley
  • I don't like composers who think. It gets in the way of their plagiarism. 
    Howard Dietz
  • About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment. 
    Josh Billings
  • Art is either plagiarism or revolution. 
    Paul Gauguin
  • They had their lean books with the fat of others' works. 
    Robert Burton
  • Take the whole range of imaginative literature, and we are all wholesale borrowers. In every matter that relates to invention, to use, or beauty or form, we are borrowers. 
    Wendell Phillips
  • Their writings are thoughts stolen from us by anticipation.
    Alexis Piron
  • Because they commonly make use of treasure found in books, as of other treasure belonging to the dead and hidden underground; for they dispose of both with great secrecy, defacing the shape and image of the one as much as of the other. 
    Sir William Davenant
  • Perish those who said our good things before we did. 
    Aelius Donatus
  • When Shakespeare is charges with debts to his authors, Landor replies, "Yet he was more original than his originals. He breathed upon dead bodies and brought them into life." - Ralph Waldo Emerson, 
    Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • For such kind of borrowing as this, if it be not bettered by the borrower, among good authors is accounted plagiary. 
    John Milton
  • Copy from one, it's plagiarism; copy from two, it's research. 
    John Milton
  • I recover my property wherever I find it. 
    Jean Baptiste Poquelin Moliere
  • Amongst so many borrowed things, am glad if I can steal one, disguising and altering it for some new service. 
    Michael Eyquen de Montaigne




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