Exercise Physiology Lab - Exam 4 Study Guide

 

Note:  This is meant only to be a study guide to aid you in your studies.  All materials covered in lab or in your lab manual are fair game for the exam, whether or not they appear in this study guide.

All Terminology (many of the important terms are underlined in your manual) You should know and understand their definitions, functions, importance of, and physiologic mechanisms related to each term or concept covered in lab.

All Experiments have been performed for a reason.  You should know what we were looking for/at in each experiment.  You should know what happened and what should have happened in each experiment, you should also be able to explain physiologically why?

All Questions in the lab reports and study questions in your lab manuals are there for a reason.  Be sure that you can answer them.

Once you have completed going over terminology, experiments, and questions in the manual, you can use the following as a general checklist of things you should know for the exam.

 

Lab 14 – Aerobic Energy Cost of Activity

1)       law of Conservation of energy and how it applies to humans

2)       Be able to calculate VO2 in both absolute and relative terms

3)       you will be given FE02, FECO2, VE-STPD, Subject weight

4)       Be able to calculate RER

5)       Be able to use RER chart to determine how many kcal/L 02 (caloric equivalent)

6)       Know what a MET is and what it stands for

7)       be able to calculate MET’s from VO2

8)       Be able to calculate power and work done on a cycle and treadmill ergometer (see lab 1 )

9)       Know usual range of mechanical efficiency

10)   Know what happened to energy that was not used to perform work

11)   Be able to calculate VO2 if given FEO2, FECO2, VEatps, barometric pressure, ambient temperature, and pH2O

12)   be able to calculate aerobic energy cost of a steady state, low intensity exercise bout; you will be given rest O2, gross O2 for the last min, number of min of exercise, VCO2, and an RER/caloric equivalent table (i.e. the same way we did it in class)

13)   Hint: You will need to calculate RER from gross VO2 and VCO2

14)   Hint: You will need to calculate Net VO2

15)   be able to calculate Mechanical efficiency

16)   Know factors that effect Mechanical efficiency

17)   if given two sets of data, be able to tell who is more efficient

18)   know how mechanical efficiency affects endurance performance

19)   know some practical applications of mechanical efficiency

20)   Know what types of human exercise/activity tend to have high and low mechanical efficiencies and why

21)   be able to use energy expended information and relate it to weight loss

22)   if given results from a subject’s VO2max test (including VO2, workload, HR, VE, RER, etc.) give this subject an exercise prescription that would help them lose one pound of fat per week(~3500kcal/lb).  To determine this you may assume 5kcal/L.  Your exercise prescription should be fairly specific regarding Intensity (assign a power output, speed & grade, or heart rate), duration, and frequency (# of times per week).  Be sure that the prescription that you give is actually feasible (e.g. you are wrong if you think that an average individual can maintain a heart rate of 180 beats per minute for half an hour, you are also wrong if you think that an average subject can maintain 200 watts or more for longer than a half an hour) . 

 

Lab 15 – Exercise metabolism

1)       Understand the importance of energy metabolism for the study of exercise physiology and be able to explain why energy and work are the central themes of exercise physiology

2)       Understand the central role of ATP in exercise metabolism

3)       Be able to define the following terms, be able to explain their importance in energy metabolism in general and be able to explain their importance in exercise metabolism, and finally, be able to explain how these terms relate to each other (where applicable): glycolysis, glycogenolysis, glycogenesis, lipolysis, lipogenesis, beta oxidation, anaerobic glycolysis, aerobic glycolysis, pyruvate, lactate, acetyl coA, citric acid cycle, NADH, FADH2, ATP, fatty acids, glycerol, glycogen, blood glucose, liver, adipocytes, skeletal muscle, gluconeogenesis, phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase, glycogen synthase, phosphorylase, hormone sensitive lipase, lipoprotein lipase, triglycerides.

4)       How much can a normal subject and an elite athlete increase their energy expenditure per minute during exercise?

5)       Be able to give examples illustrating how great a metabolic stress exercise is.

6)       Be able to describe the locations, quantities, and storage forms of our major energy stores in the body and be able to explain how each may be used at rest, during exercise, and during fasting

7)       Be able to explain some of the complex mechanisms we have for maintaining blood glucose, including hormones and tissues involved.

8)       Be able to explain the roles of muscle and liver glycogen

9)       Be able to explain the differing actions of the two lipases mentioned in your manual. 

10)   Be able to explain the functions of the various enzymes mentioned in your manual

11)   Be able to explain the roles of beta oxidation, aerobic glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain in aerobic energy metabolism. 

12)   Be able to explain how the major anaerobic energy systems work and during what types of exercise they are especially important

13)   Be able to compare aerobic and anaerobic energy systems in terms of fuel substrates, rates of ATP production, capacity for sustained energy production, what types of exercise they are involved (and to what extents they are involved)

14)   Be able to explain the significance of a rate limiting enzyme and be able to give examples of rate limiting enzymes

15)   Be able to explain some of the intracellular factors involved in regulation of energy metabolism during exercise

16)   Be able to explain the roles of important hormones in coordinating exercise metabolism.

17)   Be able to explain how exercise intensity, duration, training, carbohydrate ingestion, and thermal stress influence exercise metabolism. 

18)   Be able to calculate energy expended, kcals from fat, and kcals from carbohydrates as we did in lab.

19)   Know mechanisms of heat dissipation that are most important at rest and during exercise

20)   Know what happens to skin and rectal temperature during the course of exercise under normal conditions, and under conditions of thermal stress

21)   Know why the thermal gradient is so important to us in terms of dissipating heat.

22)   know why you would rather exercise in a hot environment than a humid environment

23)                      Know what types of circulatory adaptations occur during prolonged exercise in a hot humid environment (think about what happens to Q, HR, SV, and skin blood flow)

 

Lab 16 - Anaerobic Metabolism I

1)       Understand what anaerobic metabolism is, and the consequences of it

2)       know what the different anaerobic energy systems are, how long they can be used for

3)       know what O2 deficit is, what it represents, and how to calculate it

4)       Know the difference between “O2 debt” and EPOC

5)       Know reasons why EPOC is not equal to O2 deficit

6)       know what EPOC is

7)       What is responsible for the Excess VO2 after exercise (i.e. why is EPOC observed) 

8)       What factors affect EPOC & O2 deficit (i.e. what would cause them to increase or decrease in size)

9)       know how to calculate EPOC & O2 deficit

10)   know the response of blood LA during graded exercise

11)   know how to find Tvent/ventilatory threshold (VT)

12)   know what Tvent & VT represent, and how they are theoretically related to the actions of the bicarbonate buffering system and the Lactate threshold

13)   be able to write out the equilibrium equation for the bicarbonate buffering system

14)   Know what OBLA is, and know the difference between OBLA and LT

15)   Know what LT is, and know how to determine it

16)   how are VT and LT related?

17)   what types of subjects/patients should make us question whether or not there is a cause effect relationship between the LT and VT?

18)   What is the problem with the terminology related to “anaerobic threshold”

19)   EPOC/Anaerobic threshold test procedures

20)   Know the significance of LT/ VT relative to endurance performance

21)   Know what happens to LT with endurance training

22)   know the effects of active vs. passive recovery on LA clearance after exercise

 

Lab 15 – Anaerobic Metabolism II

1)       anaerobic power tests

2)       why used

3)       how done

4)       limitations of each

5)       do they directly or indirectly assess a subjects ability to use anaerobic metabolism

6)       what energy system(s) are being tested during each

7)       procedures for each

8)       Wingate:  calculation of

a.       max anaerobic power (abs & rel)

b.       max anaerobic capacity (abs & rel)

c.       fatigue index

9)       analysis of results (especially wingate): e.g. compare individuals: who has greater endurance (look at fatigue index), who has greater ability to use ATP-PCr to provide energy, who has greater overall ability to produce energy via anaerobic energy systems

10)Margaria-Kalamen, Sargent Jump-reach test, ® be able to determine/calculate power output if given nomogram or equation (you need to know what variables stand for)

11)   know all procedures for determining an individuals accumulated oxygen deficit

12)   what are normal ranges for accumulated oxygen deficit

13)   if given 2-4 submaximal workloads & the VO2 at those workloads, and if given the VO2 and duration at a given intensity be able to calculate accumulated oxygen deficit

14)   how is accumulated oxygen deficit related to anaerobic capacity

15)   what is the difference between anaerobic capacity  determined by accumulated O2 deficit vs. with the wingate test? What are disadvantages and advantages for each of these methods

16)   what factors could affect accumulated o2 deficit

 

A note on Semi-comprehensive questions

We have now talked about several factors that affect endurance performance, and we have assessed several in class as well (VO2max, “Anaerobic Threshold”, and mechanical efficiency.)  Be able to explain how each of these effects endurance performance.  It may be helpful for you to give an example of two or more athletes and their VO2max, VT, and %ME, and explain who would be the most successful marathoner and why.