Stephen M. Reilly

Professor, Biological Sciences

Program in Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

Director, OCEES 

Ohio Center for Ecology & Evolutionary Studies

Ph. D. 1986, Southern Illinois University

Evolutionary & Functional Morphology



Office:   Life Sciences Building 129

Phone:  (740) 593-0424           Fax: (-0300)

       Department Office (-2290)


Address: Dr. Stephen M. Reilly

         Department of Biological Sciences

         Athens OH 45701


Research Interests



(some PDF's)



Frog team in NZ



Current research in the lab is focusing on the evolution of jumping in frogs. 


Movement patterns in leiopelmatid frogs: Insights into the locomotor repertoire of basal anurans 

Behavior Processes 121: 43–53.  



Functional evolution of jumping in frogs: interspecific differences in take-off and landing. J. Morphol. In Press.  





Conquering the world in leaps and bounds:  hopping locomotion in toads is actually bounding. 


Funct. Ecol. 29:1308-1316. 



Landing in basal frogs: evidence of saltational patternsin the evolution of anuran locomotion. Naturwissenschaften 97:935–939.

With anatomical and functional studies we have shown that jumping behavior and pelvic anatomy have evolved in a stepwise fashion in frogs.  Frogs first evolved jumping with a belly-flopping landing and later evolved hands-first landing.  

see the Australian Broadcasting story / video on the evolution of frog jumping


Belly-flopping frogs press release




Field studies of locomotor behavior in the world oldest frogs - early frogs did not jump, much





Coming soon...

In frogs the landing has evolved more than the take-off  

Journal of Morphology











Toads prefer bounding gaits in locomotion 





Naturwissenschaften paper PDF

See associated individual species leaping videos


Early frogs had not figured out how to land on their feet .......

Click below to see individual species JUMPING MOVIES

Tailed Frogs...


Shallow Jump                     Medium jump                 Steep Jump (OUCH!)






Frog pelvic design has evolved too going from a hopping system to many versions of jumping and climbing pelvic systems.


The evolution of jumping in frogs: Morphological evidence for the basal anuran locomotor condition and the radiation of locomotor systems in crown group anurans. J. Morphol. 272:149-168.  See supplemental videos of pelvic movements here. See supplemental videos of pelvic movements here.

Phylogenetic patterns of skeletal morphometics and pelvic traits in frogs in relation to foraging mode. J. Evol. Biol. 26:929-43.

........But later frogs did:

Fire bellied toad

Green Frog




Research Interests

Evolutionary and Functional Morphology

My research integrates morphological, biomechanical, functional, and developmental analyses to study how ontogeny, ecology, and phylogeny affect vertebrate design and function. This involves experimental and morphometric approaches to the analysis of form and function in organisms, testing organismal performance in the lab and field, and ecomorphological approaches to the study of vertebrate evolution.

Please see our websites for information for Graduate and Undergraduate programs of study.  Ohio University and the Department of Biological Sciences offers several avenues for undergraduate research opportunities, funding, and honors research programs.     See research publications in orange and this feature article for examples of undergraduate research projects in my lab.


Lizard book from Cambridge University Press...

Lizard Ecology: The evolutionary consequences of foraging mode (published August 2007)

Edited by Steve Reilly, Lance McBrayer, and Don Miles


    The foraging mode of lizards has been a central theme in guiding research in lizard biology for three decades. Foraging mode has been shown to be a pervasive evolutionary force molding the diet, ecology, behavior,

anatomy, biomechanics, life history and physiology of lizards. This volume reviews the state of our knowledge on the effects of foraging mode on these and other organismal systems to show how they have evolved, over

a wide taxonomic survey of lizard groups. The reviews presented here reveal the continuous nature of foraging strategies in lizards and snakes, providing the reader with an up-to-date review of the field, and will equip

researchers with new insights and future directions for the sit-and-wait vs. wide foraging paradigm.

Also available from Amazon

Dorsal and ventral views of the skull of a full grown Siren intermedia.

Anatomy and Morphometrics Research

Morphology is analyzed using a computer-interfaced video and radiographic analysis systems and quantitative morphometrics to describe and compare individual structures and their shapes.  Development is quantified by tracking anatomical structures visualized in specimens using conventional staining and clearing techniques and micro CT imagery.

Much of my past research has focused on the metamorphosis of cranial morphology and feeding function in lower vertebrates, the evolution of neoteny and paedomorphosis in salamanders, and the use of ontogenetic morphological data in systematics.  My new student Mike Jorgenson is finishing a widespread comparison of skeletal anatomy and muscle fiber types in frogs as it relates to locomotion..

 Previous students have studied lizard limb anatomy in relation to gait, biomechaincs and actual locomotor relevance in the field (Eric McElroy),   correlates of head design and foraging mode in lizards (Lance McBrayer), a comparative analysis of the functional morphology and biomechanics flying squirrels (Rick Essner), and an analysis of the tadpole head anatomy and function (Pete Larson).


Functional Morphology and Performance

Simultaneous high-speed video and radiography (100 - 1000 fields per second) and electromyography (up to 14 channels) are used to quantify behavioral movements and muscle activity patterns.  Custom software are used to digitize and quantify kinematic and EMG data.  Organismal performance is tested in the laboratory and the field to link morphology to ecology and resource use.  The integration of these approaches allows empirical tests of a broad spectrum of biological phenomena and hypotheses.

Japanese quail (top) and the lizard Sceloporus clarkii (below) running on a treadmill while EMG's from hindlimb limb muscles are being recorded.



Tadpole feeding motor patterns

Click on tadpole image for video


Force Plate Technologies for studying whole body mechanics

Many of our studies have used force plate systems from which ground reaction forces can be recorded in small

vertebrates.  We are recording data from a variety of vertebrates including possums, lizards, salamanders, and

tuataras, and recently toads!   These devices and virtual instruments are used to record, scale and filter force

records and to crunch mechanical energy fluctuations were developed with National Science Foundation support

with the assistance of John Bertram, David Lee, and Kay Earls .  In addition, a new force instrumented treadmill

system is now up a running.

Functional morphological data quantifying kinematic, motor pattern and force dynamics form a necessary basis

for convincing functional inferences that can be used to test hypotheses about biomechanics, the evolution of

terrestrial feeding and locomotion and how the ecological relevance influences the  evolution vertebrate form

and function.

This shot is for you, Kay!



Integrative studies of locomotor behavior, gait, mechanics, and motor patterns

Much of the recent work in the lab has focused on analyses of vertebrate locomotion in collaboration with Dr.

Audrone Biknevicius.  The general goal is to examine the effects of the "sprawling to erect" paradigm in tetrapods

on locomotor evolution.  But this requires quantitative data from salamanders, mammals, lizards, crocodilians, and

birds and studies of these taxa are currently underway.  Eventually, we will be able to describe in more detail

how each of these taxa move and to compare and contrast anatomical and functional patterns on the vertebrate


Recent studies have shown that tail dragging in alligators has wide ranging effects on hindlimb function.   And

possums were found to utilize only running mechanics and trotting gaits.  In addition, possums were also found

to use a “cross-couplet” linkage system to stiffen the body across diagonal limb couplets during each step. 

Recent studies of new world and Australian marsupials has revealed size constraints on mammalian locomotion

and has shown how mammals may have transitioned from the cross-couplet system to the placental mammal


See  Science 299:400-403. or the following popular press reports:


 Cross-couplet motor patterns in opossums using the epipubic bone to stiffen the body across diagonal limbs

during trotting.    



 This work has led into our current studies of locomotor constraints and innovations in primitive mammals

In collaboration with Tom White (Buffalo State College) and Mike Bennett (University of Queensland) we are

studying locomotor system in marsupial and placental mammals in which different constraints and innovations

appear to have molded the evolution of locomotor design, gaits and the use of mechanical energy-saving systems. 

Integrated studies of anatomy, gait, limb and axial movements, muscle activity patterns, ground reaction forces and

whole-body mechanics will compare locomotor dynamics in two important examples of evolutionary transitions of

vertebrate locomotion: from the primitive tetrapod condition to early mammalian forms and between marsupials and

placental mammals. 

The work follows up on discoveries from previous NSF support showing that the “epipubic” bones lying the belly

wall in front of the pelvis and associated abdominal muscles function in a “cross-couplet system” controlling trunk

bending and footfall patterns during locomotion.  The advent of the cross-couplet system (based on the appearance

of epipubic bones) and its subsequent retention in all basal mammalian taxa reveals a significant and as yet

unrecognized critical innovation in the transition from generalized amniote to mammalian patterns of locomotion. 

Appearing concomitantly with the key mammalian traits of endothermy, mastication and lactation, the cross-couplet

system is hypothesized to have been a key locomotor innovation leading to the early radiation of mammals.  It

remains a viable locomotor system in many primitive mammals, however, the subsequent reduction or loss of the

epipubic bones (and we propose the loss of the cross-couplet system and its constraints) appears to have freed

some marsupials and the extant eutherians from the locomotor constraints on gait and mechanics predicted for

cross-couplet system.  Understanding the locomotor consequences of the appearance and subsequent loss of the

epipubic bones is therefore of great significance in mammalian evolution.  Quantifying the functional consequences

of changes in early mammalian belly design is critical to understanding the radiation of locomotor abilities in higher








Evolutionary biomechanics in tetrapods

    Recent studies of locomotor biomechanics have added to our knowledge about the distribution of walking

(vaulting - pendulum-based locomotion) and bouncing (spring-like locomotion) across tetrapods and show that

these basic energy-saving mechanisma appeared with the first tetrapods to move onto land over 200 million years ago.

See this paper and popular press report:

 2006.  S.M. Reilly, E.J. McElroy, R.A. Odum and V.A. Hornyak. Tuataras and salamanders show that walking

and running mechanics are ancient features of tetrapod locomotion.  Proc. R. Soc. B 273:1563-1568.






Current Students and Recent Graduates  

Mike Jorgensen-


Ph.D. Ohio University 2008 

Lecturer, Pathology & Anatomical Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia

Mike is working on axial function and evolution in frogs as it relates to 

locomotion.  His research focuses on morphometrics and large scale 

sampling to study variation in the amphibian skeleton and the timing 

of ossification sequences in amphibians and their utility in the analysis 

of heterochony in vertebrates.  

Eric McElroy-


Ph.D. Ohio University 2008 

Associate Professor, College of Charleston, Department of Biology

Eric continues his work on locomotor mechanics and  kinematics in lizards.

The focus of his work is on the evolution and ecology of animal performance 

and functional morphology.  Functional, physiological and morphological 

basis of animal behavior.

Rate My Prof comment on Eric: "Dr. McElroy brought energy to the class, and it was easy to

pay attention to him. He is a lean, tall drink of science hotness"

Lance McBrayer-


Ph.D. Ohio University 2002

Professor, Curator of Herpeology, Associate Dean of Faculty & Research Programs

Georgia Southern University

  Lance is studying the evolution of the feeding in lizards.  His research focuses on 

the ecology and evolution of lizards. His research integrates morphological, 

ecological, and behavioral analyses to understand how organisms cope with 

ecological challenges and how key traits evolve. The general lab focus on traits 

related to locomotion and feeding.

Pete Larson


Ph.D.  Ohio University 2003

Assistant Professor, St. Anselm College 2003-2009

   For a few years Pete continued his work on morphometric patterns of the skulls of 

tadploes but his work turned to the biomechanics of human running. As Pete developed 

a greater interest in running science, he moved into the study of running shoes and 

running form and gait and he started the website Runblogger to convey that passion 

and published Tread Lightly: Form, Footwear, and the Quest for Injury Free Running 

Rick Essner-


Ph.D. Ohio University 2003

Postdoctoral Appointment with Larry Rome, University of Pennsylvania

Associate Professor, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville

  RIcks interests are in vertebrate functional and ecological morphology, especially the evolution

of locomotor novelty.  He combines functional morphology with behavioral, ecological, and 

physiological research to quantify the locomotor form-function complex. He is currently studying 

locomotion in frogs by quantifying morphological, functional and behavioral patterns in basal

(leiopelmatid) and derived (lalagobatrachian) frog taxa to understand the evolution of frog jumping

He am also interested in wildlife and conservation biology. 


Teaching & Sample Course Syllabi

Bios 303/503 - Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (Winter quarter)

Bios 275 - Animal Ecology (Fall quarter)

Bios 403 - Teaching Vertebrate Anatomy (Winter Quarter)






Publications (Green co-authors are undergraduates):

1. 1982a. Reilly, S. M. Ecology of Chameleo schubotzi from Mount Kenya. J. Herpetol. Soc. Africa. 28:1-3.

2. 1982b. Hebrard, J. J., S. M. Reilly, and M. Guppy. Thermal ecology of Chameleo hohneli and Mabuya varia in the Aberdare Mountains: constraints on heterothermy in an alpine environment. J.E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc. Natl. Mus. Kenya. No. 176:1-6.

3. 1983a. Reilly, S. M. The biology of the high altitude salamander Batrachuperus mustersi from Afghanistan. J. Herpetol. 17:1-9.

4. 1983b. Reilly, S. M. Attempts to induce captive breeding in Batrachuperus mustersi. Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc. 18:12-14.

5. 1983c. Reilly, S. M. Sternotherus odoratus: Algal Relationships. SSAR Herp. Review. 14:76.

6. 1986. Reilly, S. M. Ontogeny of cranial ossification in the eastern newt, Notophthalmus viridescens (Caudata: Salamandridae), and its relationship to metamorphosis and neoteny. J. Morphol. 188:315-326.

7. 1987a. Reilly, S. M. Ontogeny of the hyobranchial apparatus in the salamanders Ambystoma talpoideum (Ambystomatidae) and Notophthalmus viridescens (Salamandridae): the ecological morphology of two neotenic strategies. J. Morphol. 191:205-214.

8. 1987b. Reilly, S. M. Paradactylodon: a junior synonym for Batrachuperus. Amphibia-Reptilia. 8:283-284.

9. 1987c. Reilly, S.M. An interview with Sir David Attenborough. Papyrus 1:1-18.

10. 1988a. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Ontogeny of aquatic feeding performance in the eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens: Salamandridae). Copeia. 1988:87-91.

11. 1988b. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Atavisms and the homology of hyobranchial elements in lower vertebrates. J. Morphol. 195:237-245.

12. 1988c. Lauder, G. V. and S. M. Reilly. Functional design of the feeding mechanism in salamanders: causal bases of ontogenetic changes in function. J. Exp. Biol. 134:219-233.

13. 1989a. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Physiological bases of feeding behaviour in salamanders: Do motor patterns vary with prey type? J. Exp. Biol. 141:343-358.

14. 1989b. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Kinetics of tongue projection in Ambystoma tigrinum: Quantitative kinematics, muscle function, evolutionary hypotheses. J. Morphol. 199:223-243.

15. 1989c. Reilly, S. M. Balance in Science (letter). Science 245:1032.

16. 1989d. Wainwright, P. C., C. P. Sanford, S. M. Reilly, and G. V. Lauder. The evolution of motor patterns: aquatic feeding in salamanders and ray-finned fishes. Brain Behav. Evol. 34:329-341.

17. 1990a. Reilly, S. M. Biochemical systematics and evolution in the eastern North American newts, genus Notophthalmus (Caudata: Salamandridae). Herpetologica 46:51-59.

18. 1990b. Reilly, S. M. Comparative ontogeny of cranial shape in salamanders using Resistant Fit Theta Rho analysis. In: Proceedings of the Michigan Morphometrics Workshop. F. J. Rohlf and F. L. Bookstein (eds). University of Michigan Press.

19. 1990c. Lauder, G. V. and S. M. Reilly. Metamorphosis of the feeding mechanism in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). J. Zool. Lond. 222:59-74.

20. 1990d. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Evolution of tetrapod feeding behavior: kinematic homologies in prey transport. Evolution 44:1542-1557.

21. 1990e. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Metamorphosis of cranial design in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum): A morphometric analysis of ontogenetic change. J. Morph. 204:121-137.

22. 1990f. Jayne, B. C., S. M. Reilly, P. C. Wainwright, and G. V. Lauder. The effect of sampling rate on the analysis of digital electromyograms from vertebrate muscle. J. Exp. Biol. 154:557-565.

23. 1990g. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. The strike of the salamander: quantitative kinematics and muscle function during prey capture. J. Comp. Physiol. A. 167:827-839.

24. 1991a. Ashley, M. A., S. M. Reilly and G. V. Lauder. Ontogenetic scaling of hind limb development in Ambystoma tigrinum. Copeia. 1991:767-776.

25. 1991b. Reilly, S. M. The Snakes of Iran (review). Copeia 1991:1149-1150.

26. 1991c. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Prey transport in the tiger salamander: quantitative electromyography and muscle function in tetrapods. J. Exp. Zool. 260:1-17.

27. 1991d. Reilly, S. M. Evolutionary Innovations (review). Quart. Rev. Biol. 66:488.

28. 1991e. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Experimental morphology of the feeding mechanism in salamanders. J. Morph. 210:33-44.

29. 1992a. Reilly, S. M., G. V. Lauder and J. P. Collins. Performance consequences of trophic polymorphism: feeding behavior in typical and cannibal phenotypes of Ambystoma tigrinum. Copeia 1992:672-679.

30. 1992b. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Morphology, behavior and evolution: comparative kinematics of aquatic feeding in salamanders. Brain Behav. Evol. 40:182-196.

31. 1994a. Wainwright, P.C. and S.M. Reilly. Introduction to Ecological Morphology. Pp. 1-9. In: Ecological Morphology: Integrative Approaches in Organismal Biology. P. C. Wainwright and S. M. Reilly (eds). University of Chicago Press.

32. 1994b. Reilly, S. M. The ecological morphology of metamorphosis: Heterochrony and the evolution of feeding mechanisms in salamanders. Pp. 319-338. In: Ecological Morphology: Integrative Approaches in Organismal Biology. P. C. Wainwright and S. M. Reilly (eds). University of Chicago Press.

33. 1994c. Reilly, S. M. and P.C. Wainwright. Ecological morphology and the power of integration. Pp. 339-354. In: Ecological Morphology: Integrative Approaches in Organismal Biology. P. C. Wainwright and S. M. Reilly (eds). University of Chicago Press.

34. 1994d. Wainwright, P.C. and S.M. Reilly (eds). Ecological Morphology: Integrative Approaches in Organismal Biology. 367 p. University of Chicago Press.

35. 1994e. Reilly, S.M. and R.A. Brandon. Partial Paedomorphosis in the Mexican stream salamanders and the taxonomic status of the genus Rhyacosiredon. Copeia 1994: 656-662.

36. 1994f. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Amphibian feeding behavior: comparative biomechanics and evolution. Pp. 163-195. In: Advances in comparative and environmental physiology, Vol. 18. R. Gilles (ed). (Springer Verlag).

37. 1995a. Reilly, S. M. The ontogeny of aquatic feeding behavior in Salamandra salamandra: stereotypy and isometry in feeding kinematics. J. Exp. Biol. 198:701-708.

38. 1995b. Reilly, S.M. Quantitative electromyography and muscle function of the hindlimb during lococmotion in the lizard Sceloporus clarki. Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems. 98:278-297.

39. 1995c. Vallejo, M. J., S. Reilly, R. Pyles, and M. White. Genetic variation within and across a stream in Desmognathus. Allozyme Bulletin. 28:51.

40. 1996a. Reilly, S.M. and R.A. Altig. Cranial ontogeny in Siren intermedia (Amphibia: Sirenidae): Paedomorphic, metamorphic, and novel patterns of heterochrony. Copeia 1996:29-41.

41. 1996b. Lauder, G. V. and S. M. Reilly. The mechanistic bases of behavioral evolution: a multivariate analysis of musculoskeletal function. In E. Martins (ed) Phylogenies and the Comparative Method in Animal Behavior. pp. 104-137. Cambridge: Oxford Univ. Press.

42. 1996c. Reilly, S. M. The metamorphosis of feeding kinematics in Salamandra salamandra and the evolution of terrestrial feeding behavior. J. Exp. Biol. 199:1219-1227.

43. 1997a. Reilly, S.M., E.O. Wiley, and D. Meinhardt. An integrative approach to heterochrony: distinguishing intraspecific and interspecific phenomena. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 60:119-143.

44. 1997b. Reilly, S.M. and M. L. DeLancey. Sprawling locomotion in the lizard Sceloporus clarkii: quantitative kinematics of a walking trot. J. Exp. Biol. 200:753-765.

45. 1997c. Reilly, S.M. and M. L. DeLancey. Sprawling locomotion in the lizard Sceloporus clarkii: the effects of speed on gait, hindlimb kinematics, and axial bending during walking. J. Zool. Lond. 243:417-433.

46. 1998. Reilly, S.M. Sprawling locomotion in the lizard Sceloporus clarkii: speed modulation of motor patterns in a walking trot. Brain Behav. Evol. 52:126-138.

47. 1998. Reilly, S.M. and J.A. Elias. Locomotion in Alligator mississippiensis: kinematic effects of speed and posture and their relevance to the sprawling to erect paradigm. J. Exp. Biol. 201:1559-1574.

48. 1998. Shapes of Time. The Evolution of Growth and Development (Review). American Zoologist. 38:988-989.

49. 2000. Reilly, S.M. Locomotion in the Quail (Coturnix japonica): The Kinematics of Walking and Increasing Speed. Journal of Morphology. Journal of Morphology. 243:173-185.

50. 2000. Elias, J.A., McBrayer, L.D. and S.M. Reilly. Prey transport kinematics in Tupinambis teguixin and Varanus exanthematicus: conservation of feeding behavior in "chemosensory tongued" lizards. J. Exp. Biol. 203:791-801.

51. 2000. White, MM, Vallejo, F, and S.M. Reilly. Fine scale genetic differentiation in the Carolina Mountain Dusky salamander, Desmognathus carolinenesis. J. Herpetol. 34:298-302.

52. 2001. S.M. Reilly, L. D. McBrayer, and T. D. White.  Prey processing in amniotes: biomechanical and behavioral patterns of food reduction. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. 128:397-415.

53. 2002. S.M. Reilly.  Neoteny  (encyclopedia entry). Encyclopedia of Evolution, Oxford University Press, pp. 814-815.

54. 2002. S.M. Reilly.  Paedomorphosis  (encyclopedia entry). Encyclopedia of Evolution, Oxford University Press, pp. 853-854..

55. 2002 McBrayer, L.D. and S.M. Reilly. Testing amniote models of prey transport kinematics: a quantitative analysis of mouth opening patterns in lizards. Zoology (Jena). 105:71-81.

56. 2002. McBrayer, L.D. and S.M. Reilly. Prey processing in lizards: behavioural variation in sit-and-wait and widely foraging taxa.  Can. J. Zool. 80:882-892.

57. 2003.  Reilly, S.M. and A.R. Biknevicius. Integrating Kinetic and Kinematic Approaches to the Analysis of Terrestrial Locomotion. (In Vertebrate Biomechanics and Evolution,(V.L. Bels, J.P. Gasc, and A. Casinos, eds), et al. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers).

58. 2003.  Larson, P. M. and S.M. Reilly. Functional morphology of feeding and gill irrigation in the anuran tadpole: Electromyography and muscle function in larval Rana catesbeiana.  Journal of Morphology. 255:202-214.

59. 2003. Reilly, S.M. and T.D. White. Hypaxial motor patterns and the function of epipubic bones in primitive mammals.  Science 299:400-403.

60. 2003. Parchman, A.J. Reilly, S. M. and A.R. Biknevicius.  Whole-body mechanics and gaits in the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica: integrating patterns of locomotion in a semi-erect mammal. J. Exp. Biol. 206:1379-1388.

61. 2003. Reilly, S.M. and R.W. Blob. Motor control of locomotor hindlimb posture in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).  J. Exp. Biol. 206: 4327-4340. 

62. 2004. Willey, J.S., Biknevicius, A.R., Reilly, S.M. and K.D. Earls. The tale of the tail: limb function and locomotor mechanics in Alligator mississippiensis.  J. Exp. Biol. 207:553-563.

63. 2005. Reilly, S.M., Willey, J.S., Biknevicius, A.R. and Blob, R.W.  Locomotor dynamics in a semi-erect posture: integrating movements, motor patterns, ground reaction forces and bone strains of hindlimb locomotion in the alligator. J. Exp. Biol. 208:993-1009.

64. 2006.  S.M. Reilly, E.J. McElroy, R.A. Odum and V.A. Hornyak. Tuataras and salamanders show that walking and running mechanics are ancient features of tetrapod locomotion.  Proc. R. Soc. B 273:1563-1568.

65. 2006. Biknevicius, A.R. and Reilly, S.M.  Correlation of symmetrical gaits and whole body mechanics: debunking myths in locomotor biodynamics. J. Exp. Zool. 305: 923-934.

66. 2007. McElroy, E.J., J.J. Meyers, S.M. Reilly, D.J. Irschick.  Dissecting the effects of behaviour and habitat on the locomotion of a lizard, Urosaurus ornatus.  Animal Behaviour  73:359-365.

67. 2007. Reilly, S.M., L.D. McBrayer and D. B. Miles.  Lizard Ecology: The evolutionary consequences of foraging mode.  Cambridge University Press.

68. 2007. Reilly, S.M., L.D. McBrayer and D. B. Miles.  Foreward. In Lizard Ecology: the evolutionary consequences of foraging mode  Cambridge University Press.

69. 2007. McBrayer, L.D., Miles, D. B.and S.M. Reilly.  The evolution of the foraging mode paradigm in lizard ecology. In Lizard Ecology: the evolutionary consequences of foraging mode .  Cambridge University Press .

70. 2007. Reilly, S.M. and L.D. McBrayer.  Prey capture and prey processing behavior and the evolution of lingual and sensory characteristics: divergences and convergences in lizard feeding biology. In Lizard Ecology: the evolutionary consequences of foraging mode.  Cambridge University Press.

71. 2007. Reilly, S.M., McElroy, E.J and A.R. Biknevicius. Posture, gait and ecological relevance of locomotor costs and energy saving mechanisms in tetrapods.  Zoology. 110:271-289.

72. 2008. McElroy, E.J., K.L. Hickey and S.M. Reilly.  The coevolution of biomechanics, gait and foraging mode in lizards. J. Exp. Biol. 211:1029-1040.

73. 2009.  Reilly, S.M. and White T.D.  Breathing with your belly: Abdominal exhalation, loco-ventilatory integration and size constraints on locomotion in small mammals. Zoology 112:161-168.

74. 2009. Reilly, S.M., E.J. McElroy, T.D. White.  Abdominal muscle function in ventilation and locomotion in new world opossums and basal eutherians: Breathing and running with and without epipubic bones. J. Morphol. 270:1014-1028.

75. 2009. McElroy, E.J. and S.M. Reilly. The relationship between limb morphology, kinematics and force during running: the evolution of locomotor dynamics in lizards.  Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 97:634–651.

76. 2010. Reilly, S.M., E.J. McElroy, T.D. White, and M.B. Bennett.  Abdominal muscle and epipubic bone function during locomotion in Australian possums: Insights to basal mammalian conditions and eutherian-like tendencies in Trichosurus.   J. Morphol. 271:438-450.

77. 2010. Essner, R.L.,  Jr., Suffian, D.J., Bishop, P.J. and S. M. Reilly. Landing in basal frogs: evidence of saltational patternsin the evolution of anuran locomotion. Naturwissenschaften 97:935–939.

78. 2011. Reilly, S.M. and M.E. Jorgensen.  The evolution of jumping in frogs: Morphological evidence for the basal anuran locomotor condition and the radiation of locomotor systems in crown group anurans. J. Morphol. 272:149-168.  See supplemental videos of pelvic movements here.

79. 2011. Kljuno, E. Zhu, J.J., Williams, R.L., and Reilly, S.M. A biomimetic elastic cable driven quadruped robot - the robocat. Proc. ASME Int. Mechan. Eng. Cong. Exp. IMECE2011-63534, 1-11.

80. 2012. McElroy, E.J., McBrayer, L.D., Williams, S.C., Anderson, R.A., and Reilly, S.M. Sequential analysis of foraging behavior and attack speed in ambush and widely foraging lizards.  Adapt. Behav. 20:16-31.

81. 2013. Biknevicius A.R, Reilly S.M, McElroy E.J, Bennett M.B. Symmetrical gaits and center of mass mechanics in small-bodied, primitive mammals.  Zoology (Jena), 116:67-74.

82. 2013. Jorgensen, M.E. and Reilly, S.M. Phylogenetic patterns of skeletal morphometics and pelvic traits in frogs in relation to foraging mode. J. Evol. Biol. 26:929-43.

83. 2014. Essner, R.L., Jr. , Jorgensen, M.E., Ringer, B.W., Wright, S.J. and  Reilly, S.M.  An improved husbandry setup for cold-water amphibians. Bull Chicago Herp. Soc. 49:24-27.

84. 2014. McElroy, E. Wilson, R., Biknevicius, A. and Reilly, S.  A comparative study of single leg ground reaction forces in running lizards. J. Exp. Biol. 217:735-742.

85. 2015. Reilly, S., Montuelle, S., Essner, R., Schmidt, A., Halsey, L., Jorgensen, M., and Naylor, E. Conquering the world in leaps and bounds:  hopping locomotion in toads is actually bounding. Funct. Ecol. 29:1308-1316. 

86. 2015. Reilly, S.M., Essner, R. Jr., Wren, S., Easton, L., and Bishop, P.J. Movement patterns in leiopelmatid frogs: Insights into the locomotor repertoire of basal anurans. Behav. Proc. 121: 43–53.

87. 2015. Essner, R.L.,Jr., Patel, R., Reilly, S.M. Ontogeny of Body Shape and Diet in Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 107: 27-30.

88. 2016. Reilly, S.M., Montuelle, S.J., Schmidt, A., Krause, E. Naylor, E., and Essner, R. L., Jr. Functional evolution of jumping in frogs: interspecific differences in take-off and landing. J. Morphol. 277:379-393.

89. 2016. Biknevicius, A.R., Reilly, S.M., and Kljuno, E.  Locomotion in small tetrapods: size-based limitations to “universal rules” in locomotion. Pp. 251-276, In: Understanding Mammalian Locomotion: Concepts and Applications (ed. Bertram J.E.A). John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN-10: 0470454644.








The FROG TEAM In New Zealand


Pictures of my fitness (i.e. kids):


Alexander Graduates from OU Mechanical Engineering (2015).... Lucas working on photojournalism contemplating one of his award winning photos.


The family on what is left of the Tasman Glacier (2014).



Alexander - on Bethels Beach, North Island, New Zealand (2014).            Lucas flying "high" he left his collar bone on Signal Hill, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Surfing on Straddie  (2007)                                      Athens  2013            


Fox Glacier.... its gone now!