Professor, Biological Sciences
Ohio Center for Ecology & Evolutionary Studies
Ph. D. 1986, Southern Illinois University
Evolutionary & Functional Morphology
Office: Life Sciences Building 129
Phone: (740) 593-0424 Fax: (-0300)
Department Office (-2290)
Address: Dr. Stephen M. Reilly
Department of Biological Sciences
Athens OH 45701
With anatomical and functional studies we have shown that jumping behavior and pelvic anatomy have evolved in a stepwise fashion in frogs. Frogs first evolved jumping with a belly-flopping landing and later evolved feet first landing. Frog pelvic design has evolved too going from a hopping system to many versions of jumping and climbing pelvic systems.
SEE our new study of the evolution of frog pelvic evolution and jumping in the Journal of Morphology:
Online videos of pelvic movements
PDF of paper
See associated individual species leaping videos
Early frogs had not figured out how to land on their feet .......
Click below to see individual species JUMPING MOVIES
|........But later frogs did:|
Evolutionary and Functional Morphology
My research integrates morphological, biomechanical, functional, and developmental analyses to study how ontogeny, ecology, and phylogeny affect vertebrate design and function. This involves experimental and morphometric approaches to the analysis of form and function in organisms, testing organismal performance in the lab and field, and ecomorphological approaches to the study of vertebrate evolution.
Please see our websites for information for Graduate and Undergraduate programs of study. Ohio University and the Department of Biological Sciences offers several avenues for undergraduate research opportunities, funding, and honors research programs. See research publications in orange and this feature article for examples of undergraduate research projects in my lab.
Lizard Ecology: The evolutionary consequences of foraging mode (published August 2007)
Edited by Steve Reilly, Lance McBrayer, and Don Miles
The foraging mode of lizards has been a central theme in guiding research in lizard biology for three decades. Foraging mode has been shown to be a pervasive evolutionary force molding the diet, ecology, behavior,
anatomy, biomechanics, life history and physiology of lizards. This volume reviews the state of our knowledge on the effects of foraging mode on these and other organismal systems to show how they have evolved, over
a wide taxonomic survey of lizard groups. The reviews presented here reveal the continuous nature of foraging strategies in lizards and snakes, providing the reader with an up-to-date review of the field, and will equip
researchers with new insights and future directions for the sit-and-wait vs. wide foraging paradigm.
Also available from Amazon
Dorsal and ventral views of the skull of a full grown Siren intermedia.
Anatomy and Morphometrics Research
Morphology is analyzed using a computer-interfaced video and radiographic analysis systems and quantitative morphometrics to describe and compare individual structures and their shapes. Development is quantified by tracking anatomical structures visualized in specimens using conventional staining and clearing techniques and micro CT imagery.
Much of my past research has focused on the metamorphosis of cranial
morphology and feeding function in lower vertebrates, the evolution of neoteny and paedomorphosis in salamanders, and the use of ontogenetic
morphological data in systematics. My
new student Mike Jorgenson
is finishing a widespread comparison of skeletal anatomy and muscle fiber
types in frogs as it relates to locomotion..
My new student Mike Jorgenson is finishing a widespread comparison of skeletal anatomy and muscle fiber types in frogs as it relates to locomotion..
Previous students have studied lizard limb anatomy in relation to gait, biomechaincs and actual locomotor relevance in the field (Eric McElroy), correlates of head design and foraging mode in lizards (Lance McBrayer), a comparative analysis of the functional morphology and biomechanics flying squirrels (Rick Essner), and an analysis of the tadpole head anatomy and function (Pete Larson).
Functional Morphology and Performance
Simultaneous high-speed video and radiography (100 - 1000 fields per second) and electromyography (up to 14 channels) are used to quantify behavioral movements and muscle activity patterns. Custom software are used to digitize and quantify kinematic and EMG data. Organismal performance is tested in the laboratory and the field to link morphology to ecology and resource use. The integration of these approaches allows empirical tests of a broad spectrum of biological phenomena and hypotheses.
Japanese quail (top) and the lizard Sceloporus clarkii (below) running on a treadmill while EMG's from hindlimb limb muscles are being recorded.
Tadpole feeding motor patterns
Click on tadpole image for video
Force Plate Technologies for studying whole body mechanics
Many of our studies have used force plate systems from which ground reaction forces can be recorded in small
vertebrates. We are recording data from a variety of vertebrates including possums, lizards, salamanders, and
tuataras, and recently toads! These devices and virtual instruments are used to record, scale and filter force
records and to crunch mechanical energy fluctuations were developed with National Science Foundation support
with the assistance of John Bertram, David Lee, and Kay Earls . In addition, a new force instrumented treadmill
system is now up a running.
Functional morphological data quantifying kinematic, motor pattern and force dynamics form a necessary basis
for convincing functional inferences that can be used to test hypotheses about biomechanics, the evolution of
terrestrial feeding and locomotion and how the ecological relevance influences the evolution vertebrate form
This shot is for you, Kay!
Integrative studies of locomotor behavior, gait, mechanics, and motor patterns
Much of the recent work in the lab has focused on analyses of vertebrate locomotion in collaboration with Dr.
Audrone Biknevicius. The general goal is to examine the effects of the "sprawling to erect" paradigm in tetrapods
birds and studies of these taxa are currently underway. Eventually, we will be able to describe in more detail
how each of these taxa move and to compare and contrast anatomical and functional patterns on the vertebrate
Recent studies have shown that tail dragging in alligators has wide ranging effects on hindlimb function. And
possums were found to utilize only running mechanics and trotting gaits. In addition, possums were also found
to use a “cross-couplet” linkage system to stiffen the body across diagonal limb couplets during each step.
Recent studies of new world and Australian marsupials has revealed size constraints on mammalian locomotion
and has shown how mammals may have transitioned from the cross-couplet system to the placental mammal
See Science 299:400-403. or the following popular press reports:
work has led into our current studies of
This work has led into our current studies oflocomotor constraints and innovations in primitive mammals
In collaboration with Tom White (Buffalo State College) and Mike Bennett (University of Queensland) we are
studying locomotor system in marsupial and placental mammals in which different constraints and innovations
appear to have molded the evolution of locomotor design, gaits and the use of mechanical energy-saving systems.
Integrated studies of anatomy, gait, limb and axial movements, muscle activity patterns, ground reaction forces and
whole-body mechanics will compare locomotor dynamics in two important examples of evolutionary transitions of
vertebrate locomotion: from the primitive tetrapod condition to early mammalian forms and between marsupials and
The work follows up on discoveries from previous NSF support showing that the “epipubic” bones lying the belly
wall in front of the pelvis and associated abdominal muscles function in a “cross-couplet system” controlling trunk
bending and footfall patterns during locomotion. The advent of the cross-couplet system (based on the appearance
of epipubic bones) and its subsequent retention in all basal mammalian taxa reveals a significant and as yet
unrecognized critical innovation in the transition from generalized amniote to mammalian patterns of locomotion.
Appearing concomitantly with the key mammalian traits of endothermy, mastication and lactation, the cross-couplet
system is hypothesized to have been a key locomotor innovation leading to the early radiation of mammals. It
remains a viable locomotor system in many primitive mammals, however, the subsequent reduction or loss of the
epipubic bones (and we propose the loss of the cross-couplet system and its constraints) appears to have freed
some marsupials and the extant eutherians from the locomotor constraints on gait and mechanics predicted for
cross-couplet system. Understanding the locomotor consequences of the appearance and subsequent loss of the
epipubic bones is therefore of great significance in mammalian evolution. Quantifying the functional consequences
of changes in early mammalian belly design is critical to understanding the radiation of locomotor abilities in higher
Evolutionary biomechanics in tetrapods
Recent studies of locomotor biomechanics have added to our knowledge about the distribution of walking
(vaulting - pendulum-based locomotion) and bouncing (spring-like locomotion) across tetrapods and show that
these basic energy-saving mechanisma appeared with the first tetrapods to move onto land over 200 million years ago.
See this paper and popular press report:
2006. S.M. Reilly, E.J. McElroy, R.A. Odum and V.A. Hornyak. Tuataras and salamanders show that walking
and running mechanics are ancient features of tetrapod locomotion. Proc. R. Soc. B 273:1563-1568.
Mike is working on axial function and evolution in frogs.
Using morphometrics of a large scale sample he is comparing limb and pelvic
shape in different taxa and the quantitative studies of urostyle form and
function and their relation to locomotor modes in frogs. Mike is also
comparing pelvic systems using CT imagery, histology, and muscle fiber types.
Eric McElroy- McelroyE@cofc.edu
Ph.D. Ohio University 2008
Assistant Professor, College of Charleston, Department of Biology
Eric continues his work on locomotor mechanics and kinematics in lizards.
The focus of his work is on the relationship between limb morphology,
gaits, locomotor mechanics and the field relevance of locomotion and
how these patterns have evolved each time wide foraging modes appear
Rate My Prof comment on Eric: "Dr. McElroy brought energy to the class, and it was easy to
pay attention to him. He is a lean, tall drink of science hotness"
Lance McBrayer- email@example.com
Ph.D. Ohio University 2002
Assistant Professor, Museum Curator, Georgia Southern University
Lance is studying the evolution of the feeding in lizards. He has developed a bite
force meter to measure biting forces in lizards and is comparing force performance,
morphometrics, and functional analyses of motor patterns in a comparative
ecomorphological study of different head morphologies. Lance is also studying
functional, biomechanic, behavioral, dietary and ecological patterns of lizard
feeding to examine the sit-and-wait vs. active foraging modes in
Pete Larson- firstname.lastname@example.org
Ph.D. Ohio University 2003
Postdoctoral Appointment with Larry Rome, University of Pennsylvania
Associate Professor, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville
Rick has finished his work on a study of the ecological morphology of gliding in squirrels.
He is testing hypotheses about the evolution of gliding in squirrels with a comparative
approach, analyzing morphometrics, ecology, resource use, and functional analyses of
kinematics of launch dynamics and landings in certain gliding species and outgroups.
Rick and I have recently joined forces in our studies of the evolution of frog jumping
with a new look at the basal frogs tell us about the evolution of frog locomotion.
1. 1982a. Reilly, S. M. Ecology of Chameleo schubotzi from Mount Kenya. J. Herpetol. Soc. Africa. 28:1-3.
2. 1982b. Hebrard, J. J., S. M. Reilly, and M. Guppy. Thermal ecology of Chameleo hohneli and Mabuya varia in the Aberdare Mountains: constraints on heterothermy in an alpine environment. J.E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc. Natl. Mus. Kenya. No. 176:1-6.
3. 1983a. Reilly, S. M. The biology of the high altitude salamander Batrachuperus mustersi from Afghanistan. J. Herpetol. 17:1-9.
4. 1983b. Reilly, S. M. Attempts to induce captive breeding in Batrachuperus mustersi. Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc. 18:12-14.
5. 1983c. Reilly, S. M. Sternotherus odoratus: Algal Relationships. SSAR Herp. Review. 14:76.
6. 1986. Reilly, S. M. Ontogeny of cranial ossification in the eastern newt, Notophthalmus viridescens (Caudata: Salamandridae), and its relationship to metamorphosis and neoteny. J. Morphol. 188:315-326.
7. 1987a. Reilly, S. M. Ontogeny of the hyobranchial apparatus in the salamanders Ambystoma talpoideum (Ambystomatidae) and Notophthalmus viridescens (Salamandridae): the ecological morphology of two neotenic strategies. J. Morphol. 191:205-214.
8. 1987b. Reilly, S. M. Paradactylodon: a junior synonym for Batrachuperus. Amphibia-Reptilia. 8:283-284.
9. 1987c. Reilly, S.M. An interview with Sir David Attenborough. Papyrus 1:1-18.
10. 1988a. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Ontogeny of aquatic feeding performance in the eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens: Salamandridae). Copeia. 1988:87-91.
11. 1988b. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Atavisms and the homology of hyobranchial elements in lower vertebrates. J. Morphol. 195:237-245.
12. 1988c. Lauder, G. V. and S. M. Reilly. Functional design of the feeding mechanism in salamanders: causal bases of ontogenetic changes in function. J. Exp. Biol. 134:219-233.
13. 1989a. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Physiological bases of feeding behaviour in salamanders: Do motor patterns vary with prey type? J. Exp. Biol. 141:343-358.
14. 1989b. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Kinetics of tongue projection in Ambystoma tigrinum: Quantitative kinematics, muscle function, evolutionary hypotheses. J. Morphol. 199:223-243.
15. 1989c. Reilly, S. M. Balance in Science (letter). Science 245:1032.
16. 1989d. Wainwright, P. C., C. P. Sanford, S. M. Reilly, and G. V. Lauder. The evolution of motor patterns: aquatic feeding in salamanders and ray-finned fishes. Brain Behav. Evol. 34:329-341.
17. 1990a. Reilly, S. M. Biochemical systematics and evolution in the eastern North American newts, genus Notophthalmus (Caudata: Salamandridae). Herpetologica 46:51-59.
18. 1990b. Reilly, S. M. Comparative ontogeny of cranial shape in salamanders using Resistant Fit Theta Rho analysis. In: Proceedings of the Michigan Morphometrics Workshop. F. J. Rohlf and F. L. Bookstein (eds). University of Michigan Press.
19. 1990c. Lauder, G. V. and S. M. Reilly. Metamorphosis of the feeding mechanism in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). J. Zool. Lond. 222:59-74.
20. 1990d. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Evolution of tetrapod feeding behavior: kinematic homologies in prey transport. Evolution 44:1542-1557.
21. 1990e. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Metamorphosis of cranial design in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum): A morphometric analysis of ontogenetic change. J. Morph. 204:121-137.
22. 1990f. Jayne, B. C., S. M. Reilly, P. C. Wainwright, and G. V. Lauder. The effect of sampling rate on the analysis of digital electromyograms from vertebrate muscle. J. Exp. Biol. 154:557-565.
23. 1990g. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. The strike of the salamander: quantitative kinematics and muscle function during prey capture. J. Comp. Physiol. A. 167:827-839.
24. 1991a. Ashley, M. A., S. M. Reilly and G. V. Lauder. Ontogenetic scaling of hind limb development in Ambystoma tigrinum. Copeia. 1991:767-776.
25. 1991b. Reilly, S. M. The Snakes of Iran (review). Copeia 1991:1149-1150.
26. 1991c. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Prey transport in the tiger salamander: quantitative electromyography and muscle function in tetrapods. J. Exp. Zool. 260:1-17.
27. 1991d. Reilly, S. M. Evolutionary Innovations (review). Quart. Rev. Biol. 66:488.
28. 1991e. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Experimental morphology of the feeding mechanism in salamanders. J. Morph. 210:33-44.
29. 1992a. Reilly, S. M., G. V. Lauder and J. P. Collins. Performance consequences of trophic polymorphism: feeding behavior in typical and cannibal phenotypes of Ambystoma tigrinum. Copeia 1992:672-679.
30. 1992b. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Morphology, behavior and evolution: comparative kinematics of aquatic feeding in salamanders. Brain Behav. Evol. 40:182-196.
31. 1994a. Wainwright, P.C. and S.M. Reilly. Introduction to Ecological Morphology. Pp. 1-9. In: Ecological Morphology: Integrative Approaches in Organismal Biology. P. C. Wainwright and S. M. Reilly (eds). University of Chicago Press.
32. 1994b. Reilly, S. M. The ecological morphology of metamorphosis: Heterochrony and the evolution of feeding mechanisms in salamanders. Pp. 319-338. In: Ecological Morphology: Integrative Approaches in Organismal Biology. P. C. Wainwright and S. M. Reilly (eds). University of Chicago Press.
33. 1994c. Reilly, S. M. and P.C. Wainwright. Ecological morphology and the power of integration. Pp. 339-354. In: Ecological Morphology: Integrative Approaches in Organismal Biology. P. C. Wainwright and S. M. Reilly (eds). University of Chicago Press.
35. 1994e. Reilly, S.M. and R.A. Brandon. Partial Paedomorphosis in the Mexican stream salamanders and the taxonomic status of the genus Rhyacosiredon. Copeia 1994: 656-662.
36. 1994f. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Amphibian feeding behavior: comparative biomechanics and evolution. Pp. 163-195. In: Advances in comparative and environmental physiology, Vol. 18. R. Gilles (ed). (Springer Verlag).
37. 1995a. Reilly, S. M. The ontogeny of aquatic feeding behavior in Salamandra salamandra: stereotypy and isometry in feeding kinematics. J. Exp. Biol. 198:701-708.
38. 1995b. Reilly, S.M. Quantitative electromyography and muscle function of the hindlimb during lococmotion in the lizard Sceloporus clarki. Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems. 98:278-297.
39. 1995c. Vallejo, M. J., S. Reilly, R. Pyles, and M. White. Genetic variation within and across a stream in Desmognathus. Allozyme Bulletin. 28:51.
40. 1996a. Reilly, S.M. and R.A. Altig. Cranial ontogeny in Siren intermedia (Amphibia: Sirenidae): Paedomorphic, metamorphic, and novel patterns of heterochrony. Copeia 1996:29-41.
41. 1996b. Lauder, G. V. and S. M. Reilly. The mechanistic bases of behavioral evolution: a multivariate analysis of musculoskeletal function. In E. Martins (ed) Phylogenies and the Comparative Method in Animal Behavior. pp. 104-137. Cambridge: Oxford Univ. Press.
42. 1996c. Reilly, S. M. The metamorphosis of feeding kinematics in Salamandra salamandra and the evolution of terrestrial feeding behavior. J. Exp. Biol. 199:1219-1227.
45. 1997c. Reilly, S.M. and M. L. DeLancey. Sprawling locomotion in the lizard Sceloporus clarkii: the effects of speed on gait, hindlimb kinematics, and axial bending during walking. J. Zool. Lond. 243:417-433.
46. 1998. Reilly, S.M. Sprawling locomotion in the lizard Sceloporus clarkii: speed modulation of motor patterns in a walking trot. Brain Behav. Evol. 52:126-138.
47. 1998. Reilly, S.M. and J.A. Elias. Locomotion in Alligator mississippiensis: kinematic effects of speed and posture and their relevance to the sprawling to erect paradigm. J. Exp. Biol. 201:1559-1574.
48. 1998. Shapes of Time. The Evolution of Growth and Development (Review). American Zoologist. 38:988-989.
49. 2000. Reilly, S.M. Locomotion in the Quail (Coturnix japonica): The Kinematics of Walking and Increasing Speed. Journal of Morphology. Journal of Morphology. 243:173-185.
50. 2000. Elias, J.A., McBrayer, L.D. and S.M. Reilly. Prey transport kinematics in Tupinambis teguixin and Varanus exanthematicus: conservation of feeding behavior in "chemosensory tongued" lizards. J. Exp. Biol. 203:791-801.
51. 2000. White, MM, Vallejo, F, and S.M. Reilly. Fine scale genetic differentiation in the Carolina Mountain Dusky salamander, Desmognathus carolinenesis. J. Herpetol. 34:298-302.
52. 2001. S.M. Reilly, L. D. McBrayer, and T. D. White. Prey processing in amniotes: biomechanical and behavioral patterns of food reduction. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. 128:397-415.
53. 2002. S.M. Reilly. Neoteny (encyclopedia entry). Encyclopedia of Evolution, Oxford University Press, pp. 814-815.
54. 2002. S.M. Reilly. Paedomorphosis (encyclopedia entry). Encyclopedia of Evolution, Oxford University Press, pp. 853-854..
55. 2002 McBrayer, L.D. and S.M. Reilly. Testing amniote models of prey transport kinematics: a quantitative analysis of mouth opening patterns in lizards. Zoology (Jena). 105:71-81.
56. 2002. McBrayer, L.D. and S.M. Reilly. Prey processing in lizards: behavioural variation in sit-and-wait and widely foraging taxa. Can. J. Zool. 80:882-892.
57. 2003. Reilly, S.M. and A.R. Biknevicius. Integrating Kinetic and Kinematic Approaches to the Analysis of Terrestrial Locomotion. (In Vertebrate Biomechanics and Evolution,(V.L. Bels, J.P. Gasc, and A. Casinos, eds), et al. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers).
58. 2003. Larson, P. M. and S.M. Reilly. Functional morphology of feeding and gill irrigation in the anuran tadpole: Electromyography and muscle function in larval Rana catesbeiana. Journal of Morphology. 255:202-214.
60. 2003. Parchman, A.J. Reilly, S. M. and A.R. Biknevicius. Whole-body mechanics and gaits in the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica: integrating patterns of locomotion in a semi-erect mammal. J. Exp. Biol. 206:1379-1388.
63. 2005. Reilly, S.M., Willey, J.S., Biknevicius, A.R. and Blob, R.W. Locomotor dynamics in a semi-erect posture: integrating movements, motor patterns, ground reaction forces and bone strains of hindlimb locomotion in the alligator. J. Exp. Biol. 208:993-1009.
64. 2006. S.M. Reilly, E.J. McElroy, R.A. Odum and V.A. Hornyak. Tuataras and salamanders show that walking and running mechanics are ancient features of tetrapod locomotion. Proc. R. Soc. B 273:1563-1568.
65. 2006. Biknevicius, A.R. and Reilly, S.M. Correlation of symmetrical gaits and whole body mechanics: debunking myths in locomotor biodynamics. J. Exp. Zool. 305: 923-934.
67. 2007. Reilly, S.M., L.D. McBrayer and D. B. Miles. Lizard Ecology: The evolutionary consequences of foraging mode. Cambridge University Press.
68. 2007. Reilly, S.M., L.D. McBrayer and D. B. Miles. Foreward. In Lizard Ecology: the evolutionary consequences of foraging mode Cambridge University Press.
69. 2007. McBrayer, L.D., Miles, D. B.and S.M. Reilly. The evolution of the foraging mode paradigm in lizard ecology. In Lizard Ecology: the evolutionary consequences of foraging mode . Cambridge University Press .
70. 2007. Reilly, S.M. and L.D. McBrayer. Prey capture and prey processing behavior and the evolution of lingual and sensory characteristics: divergences and convergences in lizard feeding biology. In Lizard Ecology: the evolutionary consequences of foraging mode. Cambridge University Press.
71. 2007. Reilly, S.M., McElroy, E.J and A.R. Biknevicius. Posture, gait and ecological relevance of locomotor costs and energy saving mechanisms in tetrapods. Zoology. 110:271-289.
72. 2008. McElroy, E.J., K.L. Hickey and S.M. Reilly. The coevolution of biomechanics, gait and foraging mode in lizards. J. Exp. Biol. 211:1029-1040.
74. 2009. Reilly, S.M., E.J. McElroy, T.D. White. Abdominal muscle function in ventilation and locomotion in new world opossums and basal eutherians: Breathing and running with and without epipubic bones. J. Morphol. 270:1014-1028.
76. 2010. Reilly, S.M., E.J. McElroy, T.D. White, and M.B. Bennett. Abdominal muscle and epipubic bone function during locomotion in Australian possums: Insights to basal mammalian conditions and eutherian-like tendencies in Trichosurus. J. Morphol. 271:438-450.
77. 2010. Essner, R.L., Jr., Suffian, D.J., Bishop, P.J. and S. M. Reilly. Landing in basal frogs: evidence of saltational patternsin the evolution of anuran locomotion. Naturwissenschaften 97:935–939.
78. 2011. Reilly, S.M. and M.E. Jorgensen. The evolution of jumping in frogs: Morphological evidence for the basal anuran locomotor condition and the radiation of locomotor systems in crown group anurans. J. Morphol. 272:149-168. See supplemental videos of pelvic movements here.
79. 2011. Kljuno, E. Zhu, J.J., Williams, R.L., and Reilly, S.M. A biomimetic elastic cable driven quadruped robot - the robocat. Proc. ASME Int. Mechan. Eng. Cong. Exp. IMECE2011-63534, 1-11.
80. 2012. McElroy, E.J., McBrayer, L.D., WIlliams, S.C., Anderson, R.A., and Reilly, S.M. Sequential analysis of foraging behavior and attack speed in ambush and widely foraging lizards. Adapt. Behav. 20:16-31.
81. 2013. Biknevicius A.R,
Reilly S.M, McElroy E.J, Bennett M.B. Symmetrical gaits and center of mass
mechanics in small-bodied, primitive mammals. Zoology
82. 2013. Jorgensen, M.E. and Reilly, S.M. Phylogenetic patterns of skeletal morphometics and pelvic traits in frogs in relation to foraging mode. J. Evol. Biol. 26:929-43.
83. In Press. Biknevicius, A.R., Reilly, S.M., and Kljuno, E. Locomotion in small tetrapods: size-based limitations to “universal rules” in locomotion. In: Understanding Mammalian Locomotion: Concepts and Applications (ed. Bertram J.E.A). Wiley-Blackwell.
OU @ CHEERS 2009 SICB meeting Boston.
|Research is fun!!!||