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Eric Snively, Ph.D.
Post-doctoral researcher
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

249 Stocker Center
Snively Quick Links

witmer lab
biomedical engineering

Curriculum Vitae


Department of Mechanical Engineering

Ohio University Athens OH 45701

Tel.: (740) 591-8928 Email: es180210@ohio.edu




Snively E. and Theodor J.M. 2011. Common functional correlates of head strike behavior in the pachycephalosaur Stegoceras validum (Ornithischia, Dinosauria) and combative artiodactyls. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21422.

Snively E., Anderson P.S.L, and Ryan, M.J. 2010. Functional and ontogenetic implications of bite stress in arthrodire placoderms. Kirtlandia 57: 53-60.

Tokaryk T. and Snively E. (eds.). 2009. Frenchman Formation Terrestrial Ecosystem Conference. Royal Saskatchewan Museum Contribution to Science 12: 84 pp.

Bell P.R., Snively E., and Shychoski, L. 2009. A comparison of the jaw mechanics in hadrosaurid and ceratopsid dinosaurs using finite element analysis. The Anatomical Record 202: 1338-1351.

Arbour V.M. and Snively E. 2009. Biomechanics and function of the tail club in ankylosaurid dinosaurs. The Anatomical Record 292: 1412-1426.

Snively E. and Cox A. 2008. Structural mechanics of pachycephalosaur crania permitted head-butting behavior. Palaeontologica Electronica Vol. 11, Issue 1; 3A:17p; http://palaeo-electronica.org/2008_1/140/index.html

Bell P.R. and Snively E. 2008. Polar dinosaurs on parade: a review of dinosaur migration. Alcheringa 32: 271-284.

Snively E. 2007. Invited review of Deep Alberta: Fossil Facts and Dinosaur Digs, Acorn, J. Great Plains Research 17: 232-233.

Snively E. and Russell A.P. 2007a. Craniocervical feeding dynamics of Tyrannosaurus rex. Paleobiology 33: 610-638.

Snively E. and Russell A.P. 2007b. Functional variation of neck muscles and their relation to feeding style in Tyrannosauridae and other large theropods. The Anatomical Record 290: 934-957. Cover article.

Snively E. and Russell A.P. 2007c. Functional morphology of neck musculature in the Tyrannosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda) as determined via a hierarchical inferential approach. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 151: 759-808.

Snively E., Henderson D.M., and Phillips D.S. 2006. Fused and vaulted nasals of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs: Implications for cranial strength and feeding mechanics. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 51: 435-454.

Snively E., Russell A.P., and Powell G.L. 2004. Evolutionary morphology of the coelurosaurian arctometatarsus: descriptive, morphometric, and phylogenetic approaches. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 142: 525-553.

Snively E. and Russell A.P. 2003. A kinematic model of tyrannosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) arctometatarsus function. Journal of Morphology 255:215-227.

Henderson D.M. and Snively E. 2003. Tyrannosaurus en pointe: Allometry minimized rotational inertia of large carnivorous dinosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B., Biology Letters 271: S57-S60.

Snively E. and Russell A.P. 2002. The tyrannosaurid metatarsus: bone strain and inferred ligament function. Senckenbergiana lethaea 82: 35-42.

Jasinoski S.C. and Snively E. 2002. Invited review of The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia, Benton M.J., Shishkin M.A., Unwin D.M., Kurochkin E.N. (eds). Geoscience Canada 29: 93-94.

Padian K. and Snively E. 1992. Evolution and Ecology of Dinosaurs. Text for IB 33. University of California, Berkeley.



Feeding in Tyrannosaurus rex: musculoskeletal dynamics and finite element analysis. Steven Wroe and Colin McHenry, University of New South Wales. Emily Rayfield, University of Bristol. Lawrence Witmer, Ohio University.

Biomechanics of predator-induced shell ornamentation in the intertidal snail Nucella lamellosa. Tetsuto Miyashita and Richard Palmer, University of Alberta.

Photographic atlas of fossil gekkotan lizards from the Paris Basin. Aaron Bauer, Villanova University.

Computed tomography of the skull of the Mongolian fossil gecko Gobekko cretasicus. Aaron Bauer, Villanova University. Magdalena Borsuk-Biyalnika, Institute of Palaeobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences.

Evolutionary morphology of shark mating systems. Christopher Kriegner, Villanova University.

Armor-shearing bites of the fossil placoderm fish Dunkleosteus terrelli. Michael Ryan, Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Philip S. Anderson, University of Bristol.

3D finite element analyses of feeding in owls, falcons, and hornbills. Anthony Russell and Steven Boyd, University of Calgary.

3D computer database of feeding morphology in artiodactyls. Jessica Theodor, University of Calgary.



Snively E., Cotton J.R., Witmer L.M., Ridgely R.C., and Theodor J.M. 2011. Finite element comparison of cranial sinus function in the dinosaur Majungasaurus and head-clubbing giraffes. Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference. 2 pp. Peer reviewed.

Snively E., Witmer L.W., Ridgely R., Wroe S., and Ryan M. 2010. Impact and scythe-like jaw function in large Cretaceous theropods: Majungasaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and Giganotosaurus compared. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30: 168A.

Snively E., Cotton J., Gilbert M., and Sissons R. 2010. Running stresses in humans and ostriches: reciprocal insights into high-performance bipedality. Biomedical Engineering Society 2010 Annual Meeting.

Miyashita T., Snively E., and Murray A. 2010. Micro-CT scanning technology reveals development of diplospondyly in Amia calva. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30: 136A.

Shychoski L., Snively E., and Burns M. 2010. Maneuvered out of a corner: ligament entheses of the arctometatarsus enhanced tyrannosaurid agility. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30: 165A.  

Snively E. and Longrich N. 2009. A small juvenile tyrannosaurid specimen from the Frenchman Formation (Maastrichtian) of Saskatchewan. Frenchman Formation Terresrial Ecosystem Conference, Royal Saskatchewan Museum Contribution to Science Number 12: 46.

Miyashita T., Snively E., and Murray A.M. 2009. An X-ray computed tomographic study of skeleton formation in the basal actinopterygian fish Amia calva. Northwest Regional Developmental Biology Conference, Program and Abstract book. p. 83. Winner, best poster.

Snively E., Anderson P., Ryan M., and Wilson, M. 2008. From Gogo to Gorgonichthys: variation of structural mechanics in arthrodire jaws. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(3): 145A.

Arbour V., Snively E., and Currie P.J. 2008. Evolution and functional morphology of the tail club in ankylosaurid dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(3): 46A.

Shychoski L. and Snively E. 2008. Ecological implications of tyrannosaurid lower jaw ontogeny, biomechanical scaling, and bite function. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(3): 142A.

Snively E., and Ryan M. 2007. Ontogeny of bite stress in Dunkleosteus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(3): 151A.

Snively E., McHenry C., and Wroe S. 2007. Skull stress imposed by craniocervical feeding motions in Tyrannosaurus rex: a 3D finite-element analysis. 8th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology Abstracts. p. 119.

Snively E. 2005. Invited presentation. Neck muscle function in the Tyrannosauridae. Symposium on The Origin, Systematics, and Paleobiology of the Tyrannosauridae, Rockford, Illinois. Book of Abstracts.

Snively E. and Henderson D.M. 2005. Ecomorphology of Dinosaur Park tyrannosaurids. Dinosaur Provincial Park Anniversary Symposium, Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Drumheller, Alberta.

Snively E. and Henderson D.M. 2004a. Mechanical implications of nasal fusion in tyrannosaurid dinosaurs. Journal of Morphology 260(3): 329. Seventh International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Boca Raton.

Snively E. and Henderson D.M. 2004b. Nasal fusion reinforced the rostrum of tyrannosaurids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(3): 116a.

Snively E. 2003. A theoretical model of neck musculoskeletal function in the Tyrannosauridae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(3): 99A.

Snively E. and Henderson D.M. 2002. Albertosaurus en pointe: Allometric scaling of theropod rotational inertia and turning performance. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(3): 109a.

Snively E. 2002. The better to eat you with: Birds and crocodilians as a guide to tyrannosaurid feeding mechanics. Prairie Universities Biological Symposium.

Snively E. and Russell A.P. 2001. Integrated bone and ligament function in the metatarsus in tyrannosaurid dinosaurs. Journal of Morphology 248(3): 286. Proceedings: Abstracts: International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology-6, Jena.

Snively E. 1999. Could T. rex catch a lawyer? Evidence from the functional morphology of tyrannosaurid hindlimbs. Proceedings: 1999 Canadian Palaeontological Conference.

Snively E. and Russell A.P. 1999. Tyrannosaurus rex: Pokey somnolent or supernatural dynamo? Comparative locomotory performance in theropod dinosaurs. International Society of Biomecchanics XXIV Conference Proceedings.

Hutchinson J.A., Stidham T.A., Snively E. 1997. New birds and other Late Cretaceous theropods in the University of California Museum of Paleontology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17(3): 55A.

Snively E. 1994. Metatarsal biomechanics and function in theropod dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 14(3): 46A.


2007. Gene Huber Award nomination, Unversity of Calgary Department of Biological Sciences. For doctoral thesis.

2006. Nomination for NSERC Award, Best Canadian Doctoral Thesis. University of Calgary Department of Biological Sciences.

2006. Governor General’s Gold Medal nomination, University of Calgary Department of Biological Sciences.

2003. Alberta Innovation and Science Research Excellence Award.

2001, 2002. University of Calgary Silver Medallion. For MSc program excellence.

2001. Governor General’s Gold Medal, alternate. For MSc program excellence.



2007-9. Alberta Ingenuity Post-doctoral Fellowship $48,000/yr

2007-9. Alberta Ingenuity Research stipend $7,000/yr

2007. Dinosaur Research Institute Grant $4,000

2007. Scientific and capital proposals for Canada Foundation for Innovation Grant (to Philip Currie and Michael Caldwell) $500,000

2005. Jurassic Foundation Grant $1,600

2004. Alberta Ingenuity Research Allowance $1,500

2004-2006. Alberta Ingenuity Scholarship $22,000

2003. Alberta Ingenuity Research Allowance $1,500 2003-2004.

Alberta Ingenuity Scholarship $20,000

2002. University of Calgary Conference Travel Grant $1,000

2002-2003. Alberta Ingenuity Scholarship $20,000

2002. Alberta Ingenuity Research Allowance $1,500

2002. Province of Alberta Graduate Fellowship $15,000/yr (declined)

2001-2002. Alberta Research Excellence award $8,400

2001. U. of Calgary Graduate Faculty Council Tuition Scholarship $3,000

2001. U. of Calgary Faculty of Graduate Studies Scholarship $1,000

2000-2001. Jurassic Foundation Grant $4200

2000. U. of Calgary Graduate Faculty Council Scholarship $5,000

2000. U. of Calgary Dept. of Biological Sciences Research Scholarship $1,800

2000. U. of Calgary Thesis Research Grant $600

1999. Ellis Bird Farm Ltd. Graduate Scholarship $1,000

1999. U. of Calgary Graduate Faculty Council Scholarship $5,000

1999. Heaton Student Support Grant, Royal Tyrrell Museum $1,000

1999. Jurassic Foundation Grant $1,900

1998. U. of Calgary Travel Grant $350

1998. Field Experience Student Bursary for fieldwork in Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta $890

1998. University of Calgary Graduate Research Scholarship $3,600




2007-2011. Lectures in vertebrate biomechanics. University of Calgary, University of Alberta, Ohio University.

2006. Vertebrate Paleontology, Villanova University, Biology 7970 (lecture and laboratory course).

Unless otherwise stated, the following were laboratory courses offered by the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary.

2002-2005. Comparative anatomy (labs, substitute lectures)

2005. Vertebrate palaeozoology.

2004, 1997-1999. Introductory botany and zoology

2001-2003. Field instruction in vertebrate palaeontology. Royal Tyrrell Museum Field Experience Program.

2003. Human anatomy and embryology (peer instruction).

2003, 2001. Biology of birds and mammals.

2002. Biology of fish, amphibians, and reptiles (fish section, physiology lectures, 2002)


All of these were for instruction at the University of Calgary, except for the Royal Tyrrell Museum award.

2005. Faculty of Graduate Studies Outstanding Contribution to Teaching Award. For comparative anatomy and zoology.

2003. Department of Biological Sciences Teaching Award. Honorable mention. For lab instruction (comparative anatomy).

2002. Representative graduate student, Biological Students Association Careers Night. For mentoring and instruction.

2002. Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology Award. For contribution to museum educational programs.

1998. Student Union Teaching Excellence nomination. For best course instructor (introductory botany and zoology).



Graduate students:

2008. Michael James, University of Alberta M.Sc. candidate. Biomechanics of champsosaur and crocodilian feeding.

2007-2008. Victoria Arbour. University of Alberta M.Sc. Anatomy and function of ankylosaur tail clubs.

2007-2008. Phil Bell. University of Alberta Ph.D. candidate. Feeding function of herbivorous dinosaurs.

2007-2008. Derek Larson. University of Alberta M.Sc. candidate. Palaeoecology of microvertebrate sites, Milk River Formation, Alberta.

2007-2008. Lara Shychoski. University of Alberta Ph.D. candidate. Dinosaur functional and developmental morphology.

2007-2008. Miriam Reichel, University of Alberta Ph.D. candidate. Anatomy and function of carnivorous dinosaur teeth.



2008-2009. Darrin Molinaro, University of Alberta. Physical modeling of tooth function in Tyrannosaurus rex.

2008. Tetsuto Miyashita, University of Alberta. Finite element analysis of crab predation on snails.

2008. Laurel McKee, University of Calgary. Raptor neck and hyolingual function during feeding.

2004-2006. Natalie Kuca. University of Calgary. Muscle anatomy and illustration of dinosaurs.

2003-2006. Katrin Hammer, Sara Hollihan, Magdalene Leung, Jessica Malcom. Vertebrate dissection volunteers.



2006. Lecture critiques and consultation with Dr. Carol Weiss, Villanova Institute for Teaching and Learning. Villanova University.

2006. Teaching consultations with Dr. Russell Gardiner, Head of Department of Biology, Villanova University.




2005-. Prospecting and collecting of ceratopsian bonebed and articulated hadrosaur specimens, Oldman Formation, near Manyberries, Alberta.


2009-. Recovering additional material of critical specimens. Under permit of François Therrien (RTMP), co-led by Tetsuto Miyashita and Darrin Molinaro.

2003-2004. Albertosaurus bone bed, Dry Island Buffalo Jump Provincial Park.

2002-2003. Systematic collection of isolated elements for palaeoecological survey, Horseshoe Canyon Formation.

2002. Eotriceratops skeleton, Horseshoe Canyon Formation.

2001-2002. Hadrosaur and Pachyrhinosaurus skeletons, Dinosaur Provincial Park.

2001. Centrosaurus brinkmani bonebed, Dinosaur Provincial Park.



2009. Thesis examining committee. Kirstin Brink. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.

2009. Thesis examining committee. Samantha Zimmerman. Case Western University, Cleveland, Ohio.

2009. Grant reviewer for Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation). 2009.

Ph.D. examining committee. Colin McHenry. University of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.

2008-9. Convening board. Frenchman Formation Terrestrial Ecosystems Conference, 2009. Eastend, Saskatchewan.

2007. M.Sc. examining committee. Angelo Milicia, Villanova University, Pennsylvania, USA.

2006-2007. Graduate council, Department of Biology, Villanova University.

2004. Student representative, University of Calgary Dean of Science search committee.



Acta Palaeontologia Polonica

The Anatomical Record (six reviews)

Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum Of Natural History and Science

Evolutionary Biology

Journal of Biomechanics

Journal of Experimental Zoology

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology

Journal of Zoology

Lethaia (three reviews)


Palaeontologica Electronica




Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society

Book: The Horned Dinosaurs

Book: Dinosaur Provincial Park



Society of Vertebrate Paleontology

International Society of Vertebrate Morphology

Canadian Society of Zoologists



2009. Research on flying and terrestrial predatory birds profiled in the Discovery Channel series Mega-Beasts.

2008. Research on dinosaur teeth profiled on Daily Planet television series, Discovery Canada.

2007-2008. Interviews about pachycephalosaur head-butting and tyrannosaur skulls, Quirks and Quarks radio series, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

2004-2007. Co-presenter on wildlife rehabilitation (with Oberon the great horned owl) for Calgary Wildlife Rehabilitation Society.

2006. Bird and large theropod research profiled in On Campus magazine.

2004-2005. Presenter on dinosaurs for Calgary Science Network, Kindergarten- Grade 2 in Calgary schools.

2005. Tyrannosaur and bird neck research profiled on Daily Planet television series, Discovery Canada.

2005. Invited address. Jaws of death, feet of turkeys? T. rex invites you to Alberta’s badlands playground. Talk to Canadian Poultry and Egg Processors Council convention, Calgary, Alberta.

2004. Avian and palaeontological research profiled for Today's Dinosaurs, German documentary series. J.M. Schumacher, producer.

2004. Fieldwork and paleontological education with Royal Tyrrell Museum profiled in On Campus Magazine.

2004. Invited address. Super deadly killer dinosaurs? T. rex’s biomechanical truce with incompetence. Talk to Alberta Palaeontological Society/Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Lecture series.

2004. Neck musculature of Tyrannosaurus rex. Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology Research Days.

2003. Research profiled in Kelsey E. 2003. Candian Dinosaurs. Maple Tree Press. Toronto. 2003.

“T. rex and turtle skulls: the research life of a zoology grad student.” University of Calgary Open house, with Heather Jamniczky.

2003. Interview in Kitchner/Watterloo Record, about tyrannosaur research presented at Canadian Society of Zoologists Annual Meeting.

2003. Invited address. “What’s your sign, beautiful?” at 200dB: Sexual selection in giant sauropod dinosaurs. Talk to Alberta Palaeontological Society.

2002. Tyrannosaurid and avian feeding. Radio interviews, CBC Radio 1 in Calgary and Edmonton. Newspaper interview, Calgary Herald.

2001. Interview in June l’Ordinateur Individuel. Boucq, I. Les dinosaurs, du jurassique au numérique.

2000. Invited address. Saurischian dinosaurs: romance and mayhem in the Mesozoic. Talk to Royal Tyrrell Museum Field Experience staff and participants.



  Ohio University
Mechanical Engineering
Stocker Center, Athens, Ohio 45701
Last updated: 08/01/2011