By: Ahmed Abubakr

Graphical integrity chapter aims to help the designer to create clear and efficient graphs by using important principles and tools.

Distorted graph is the graph that shows inaccurate visual representation of numerical quantities.

There are two goals that need to be achieved when creating graphs which are:

- The representation of numbers as physical objects on graphs should be proportional

to the numerical quantities that are being represented. - Labels on the graphs should be clear and detailed with explanation.

Dividing the size of effect shown in graphics by the size of effect in data would results the lie factor.

If the lie factor is equal to one then the graph accurately representing the numerical data, however

if the lie factor is greater than 1.05 or less than 0.95 this might indicate in distortion.

Each part in the graph generates expectations about the other parts and and that determine what the eyes see. Confounding of

design variation with data variation results in deception, therefore the focus should always be on

showing the data variation NOT design variation.

Ambiguity can happen when using areas to show one-dimensional data. That kind of designs should be

avoided by making sure that the number of variable dimensions is not more than the number of dimensions used in the data.

For clarity, data being represented in the graph should tell the reader what the data is being compared

to, without any unnecessary data. The principle says:

*Graphics must not quote data out of context*

Graphical integrity can be defined by six principles:

- The representation of numbers as physical objects on graphs should be proportional to the numerical quantities that are being represented.
- Labels on the graphs should be clear and detailed with explanation.
- Show data variation, not design variation.
- In time-series displays of money, deflated and standardized units of monetary measurement are always better than nominal units.
- The number of information-carrying (variable) dimensions should not be more than the number of the dimension in the data.
- Graphics must not quote data out of context.