Horace Iule (Aiuli) (c. 1901-1978)
early as 1944, when John Adair's groundbreaking study of Southwest
Native American silverworking titled The Navajo and Pueblo Silversmiths
was published, Horace Iule had achieved a level of success that
enabled him to rely upon his craft for his livelihood. Identified
by Adair as "one of the two or three best artisans in the pueblo,"
Iule taught silversmithing at Zuni's government-funded day school,
thus influencing an entire generation of silverworkers.
A third-generation silversmith whose grandfather Hatsetsenane (or
Sneezing Man) was, according to Adair, "one of the first generation
of Zuni smiths," Iule initially trained as a blacksmith at
the Phoenix Indian School. Iule learned silversmithing from his
father after completing his education and returning to the pueblo
Horace worked with his wife Lupe Iule, who was from San Felipe Pueblo.
They were married in 1933, and had six children: Ruby, Lupe, Cecilia,
Robert, Barney, and Phillip.
Known for his mastery of silvercasting, Horace Iule was one of the
first Zunis to produce the mythological Knife-Wing figure in silver.
He is best known today for his castwork crosses. Iule taught casting
to his daughter Lupe Iule and her husband George Leekity, and they
still produce cast crosses from Horace's original designs. When
George and Lupe do their own work, they stamp it "Leekity."
When they use Horace's molds, they stamp the pieces with "Iule."
Horace's sons Barney and Philip also do casting, as does Lupe's
Cast Silver Cross with Turquoise
cast silver and 6 turquoise stones
1.88 in. wide x 3 in. high
or Wilbur Iule (Zuni)
3 in. x 2 in.
Necklace with Handmade Chain
Horace Iule (Zuni)
17 in. long
Adair, John. The Navajo and Pueblo Silversmiths. Norman, Okla.: University
of Oklahoma Press, 1944, p. 137-143.
Baxter, Paula A. "Navajo and Pueblo Jewelry 1940-1970, Three
Decades of Innovative Design Revisited," American Indian Art
Magazine, Autumn 1996:38.
Bauver, Robert. Masterworks and Eccentricities: The Druckman Collection.
Pittsburgh, Pa.: Four Winds Publishing, 2002, p. 39.
Baxter Paula. Southwest Silver Jewelry. Atglen, Pa.: Schiffer Publishing,
Ltd., 2001, p. 92.
Bedinger, Margery. Indian Silver Navajo and Pueblo Jewelers. Albuquerque,
University of New Mexico Press, 1973, p. 134, 151, 200, 236.
Bell, Ed and Barbara. Zuni: The Art and the People, vol. 1. Dallas,
Tex.: Taylor Publishing Co., 1975, p. 10, 14-15.
Cirillo, Dexter. Southwestern Indian Jewelry. New York: Abbeville
Press, 1992. p 82-83.
Levy, Gordon. Who’s Who in Zuni Jewerly. Denver, Colo.: Western
Arts Publishing Co., 1980, p. 25, 27, 63.
Ostler, James, Marian Rodee, and Milford Nahohai. Zuni: A Village
of Silversmiths. Zuni, N.Mex.: A:Shiwi Publishing, 1996, p 73-75.
Schaaf, Gregory. American Indian Jewelry I: 1,200 Artist Biographies.
Santa Fe, N.Mex.: CIAC Press, 2003, p. 187.
Slaney, Deborah C. Blue Gem, White Metal: Carvings and Jewelry from
Wallace Collection. Phoenix, Ariz.: Heard Museum, 1998.
Wright, Barton. Hallmarks of the Southwest. Atglen, Pa.: Schiffer
Publishing, Ltd., 2000, p. 81.