ZAMOYSKI, WLADYSLAW 1803-1868, was the nephew of Prince Adam Czartoryski. Although he began his career as an aide-de-camp to Grand Duke Constantine, the viceroy of the Congress Kingdom, Zamoyski was first a Polish patriot who fought and was wounded in the struggle against Russia in 1830-31.
In 1832 Zamoyski emigrated to England where he joined his uncle. The relationship between was essentially that of "father-son" marked by a deep, mutual affection. He soon played a significant role within his uncle's emigre organization. After Czartoryski's permanent establishment in Paris in the Hôtel Lambert, Zamoyski became his chief deputy in Great Britain, a position he retained for many years. Drawing upon his considerable charm and family wealth, Zamoyski developed friendships with many leading political figures which served the Hôtel Lambert's political activities in good stead. He became invaluable not only for his diplomatic actions, but also for his military acumen. Sharing the conviction of most Polish emigres that a restored Poland would result only from direct military action, Zamoyski continually worked to create Polish legions and to support Polish military activity in Europe and North Africa.
Though his direct military involvement would continue through 1839 and again after 1848, Zamoyski steadily took on a greater diplomatic role within the Hôtel Lambert. Acting as his uncle's agent, Zamoyski made frequent trips throughout the continent in support of Polish diplomatic efforts. During this period he also emerged as head of a monarchist party which desired to see Prince Adam crowned as king of Poland. Devoted to Czartoryski, Zamoyski provided strong moral support to the aged prince after the failure of the 1846 Galician uprising and the consequent pressures on Czartoryski to retire from political life.
The outbreak of revolutionary activities in 1848 marked a major turning point for Zamoyski. Early in that year Czartoryski told Zamoyski that, if events should lead to the establishment of an independent Poland, he would prefer to see it as a republic rather than a monarchy, a view deeply disappointing to Zamoyski. Shortly thereafter, Czartoryski undertook a reorganization of his diplomatic services in light of the new conditions brought on by the revolutions. Recognizing that the fluidity of events in the eastern part of the continent could prove beneficial to the Poles, Czartoryski renewed his emphasis on efforts among the Italians, the south Slavs and, later, the Hungarians. In doing so, he also called upon Zamoyski to take a more active role and to relinquish his London position.
The Hôtel Lambert had long considered Italy as important to its cause, not only because of the possibility of using Italian troops in an anti-Habsburg coalition, but also because of the strong Catholicism of the Poles and Czartoryski's desire for papal support. By March 1848, Polish interest in the military possibilities of Italy had grown significantly. Czartoryski appointed Zamoyski to head the Hôtel Lambert's Italian diplomatic group. Although located in Turin, Zamoyski attempted to supervise all Polish actions in Italy. Throughout 1848, Zamoyski geared his own activities toward developing Polish legions, one in Lombardy and one in Papal service, to fight the Habsburgs along with the Italians and, afterward, to serve as the core of the Polish army. Internal rivalries among the Italians ensured that Zamoyski would not succeed in establishing separate Polish military units, although individual Poles did enter Italian service.
As the events of 1848 unfolded Czartoryski also saw possibilities for the Polish cause in the Hungarian revolutionary movement. Several Polish generals, Bem, Dembinski and Wysocki, were already serving in the Hungarian army. As part of his Balkan policies Czartoryski had also developed plans for a federated Hungarian state; even the concept of a wider federation including the Czech and Balkan peoples with the Hungarian state appeared within reach as part of the Hotel Lambert's broad anti-Russian, anti-Habsburg policies. To implement these ideas, at least in part, Czartoryski, in April, 1849, directed Zamoyski to leave Italy for Hungary to work out the details. He was to assure Kossuth of Czartoryski's support; to work out an agreement settling the rivalry between Bem and Dembinski; and to ensure Magyar acceptance of a Czech-Hungarian protocol concluded between Telecki, Pulszky and Rieger with Polish aid. Zamoyski vacillated and was reluctant to travel to Hungary without specific assurances from Czartoryski. He delayed his departure for over a month, eventually travelling via Constantinople and not arriving in Szeged until late July. By this time any Polish efforts to reconcile the factions and nationalities within Hungary were too late. Russian troops easily crushed the Hungarian forces and the last vestiges of the revolution were repressed.
Zamoyski, in the immediate aftermath, provided salutary service in securing Serbian permission for Hungarian refugees to safely cross into Ottoman territory to escape the wrath of the Russians. He remained active in Balkan affairs throughout 1850 developing schemes with various political leaders for cooperation among the Balkan peoples to fight for their liberty, though none came to fruition. With the outbreak of the Crimean War, Czartoryski sent Zamoyski to the Ottoman Empire as his representative, charged with creating an independent Polish legion. Zamoyski's personal animosity toward the former head of the Constantinople agency, Michal Czajkowski (Sadyk Pasha after his conversion to Islam), and his lack of understanding of Balkan affairs led to only limited success in establishing a Polish military presence. With the end of the war and the dissolution of the Polish Legion, Zamoyski's Ottoman mission came to an end.
Berry, Robert A. "Czartoryski and the Balkan Policies of the Hotel Lambert, 1832-1847." Ph.D. dissertation Indiana University, 1974.
Hahn, Hans Henning Aussenpolitik in der Emigration; Die Exildiplomatie Adam Jerzy Czartoryskis 1830-1840 Munich: R. Oldenbourg, 1978.
Handelsman, Marceli Adam Czartoryski 3 vols. Warsaw: Towarzystwo Naukowe Warszawskie, 1948-1950.
Konarska, Barbara W kregu Hotelu Lambert: Wladyslaw Zamoyski w latach 1832-1847 Wroclaw: Polska Akademia Nauk, 1971.
Kukiel, Marian Czartoryski and European Unity 1770-1861 Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1955.
Skowronek, Jerzy Polityka Balkanska Hotelu Lambert (1833-1856) Warsaw: Warsaw University Press, 1976.
Zamoyski, Wladyslaw Jeneral Zamoyski 6 vols. Poznan: Kornik, 1910-1930.
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