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2004-2005 Undergraduate Catalog for Ohio University

Majors, Minors, and Certificate Programs


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Ohio University Front Door -Undergraduate Catalogs- Graduate Catalogs


This section outlines the specific requirements for every program in the College of Arts and Sciences that begin with the letter B .


Bacteriology

See Biological Sciences-Microbiology.

Behavior

See Biological Sciences or Psychology.

Biological Sciences

Biology is the study of life and its component parts, from molecules to cells to ecosystems. It encompasses the entire biosphere that is the Earth. The current state of biological knowledge has taken centuries to accumulate, and with modern molecular and other analytical techniques, our understanding of biological processes is growing rapidly. The study of biology encompasses a broad spectrum of careers. These inlude researchers in the laboratory and field seeking to understand how molecules, cells, organisms, and groups of organisms work; those responsible for the health of all organisms, including humans; those interested in conservation of life and the environment; as well as those who educate others. Each plays a vital role and each needs to have a broad understanding of historical and current biology and modern techniques. The first two years of the biological sciences curriculum provides a solid basis for an understanding of life from the micro to the macro level, as well as in-depth introductions to three unifying topics; cell biology, genetics, and evolution. Specialized curricula at the upper-level include courses designed to prepare students for specific careers, including graduate schools and professional schools. Whichever special curricular track is chosen, the student will graduate with a solid foundation in biological sciences as well as a thorough preparation for biological careers and advanced education.

The commmon requirements for the B.S. in biological sciences are as follows:

A minimum of 54 quarter hours earned in biological science (BIOS) coursework. This may require several BIOS electives in addition to the courses listed under each specialized track. The non-major courses; BIOS 100, 103, 220, 225, and 392 do not count.

At least three upper-level 300-400 level courses in biological sciences must have a laboratory component. (L) indicates BIOL laboratory course or a BIOS course with a laboratory component.

If you plan to attend a graduate school, it is strongly recommended that you take BIOS 493 or BIOS 494H (Undergraduate Research) in your junior and/or senior year. See the biological sciences Web page for opportunities in undergraduate research.

Consult your DARS and your academic advisor when choosing courses to fulfill University and College requirements.

Unless otherwise indicated, BIOS departmental courses may be retaken only once.

The following is a list of core science requirements for biological sciences students in the first two years, regardless of specialization (Major code). Exceptions and additional courses are listed under each major code, but the list below is common for most students pursuing a degree in biology.

BIOS 170(L),171(L),
172, 173(L)        Intro to Zoology                   14

BIOS 320           Cell Biology                        4

BIOS 325           Genetics                            5

BIOS 330           Principles of Evolution             4

CHEM 151,152,153   Fundamentals Chem                  15

CHEM 301,302       Organic Chemistry                   6
or 305-307         Organic Chemistry                or 9

PSY 221            Statistics                          5

MATH 266A, 266B    Calculus w/App Biology              8

PHYS 201-203 
or 251-253         Physics                            15
Junior and senior-level course requirements are determined by area of specialization. Freshman

Biological Sciences Minor
Minor code OR2121

Requirements for the minor in biological sciences consist of a minimum of 27 BIOS credit hours, including

BIOS 170(L), 171(L),
172, 173(L)        Introduction to Zoology            14

At least one of the following:

BIOS 320           Cell Biology                        4

BIOS 325           Genetics                            5

BIOS 330           Principles of Evolution             4
Additional graded BIOS coursework at 300 level or above to reach 27 hours.

You must have a minimum g.p.a. of 2.0 in BIOS course work taken for the minor.

Honors Program in Biology
Outstanding students who are not part of the Honors Tutorial College may graduate with Departmental Honors. These students may be in any BIOS area of spcializiation (major code). Departmental Honors requires that a student:

- Graduate with an overal g.p.a. of at least 3.5, i.e. cum laude.

- Complete a senior hours research thesis with one of the faculty in the Department (this requires registering for BIOS 494H and 495H.

Graduation with Departmental Honors is a special achievement that offers:

- Special recognition at graduation and on the degree certificate.

- In-depth hands-on research experience in the laboratory of a faculty member.

- Direct and close interaction with a faculty member over the course of an entire year.

Biological Sciences--Integrated Biology Major (B.S.)
Major Code BS2121

The B.S. degree program in biological sciences is chosen by students who seek flexibility and breadth in their program. It is suited to students who plan to enter a graduate program in biology or students entering professional schools.

Freshman

BIOS 170(L), 171(L),
172, 173(L)        Intro to Zoology                   14

CHEM 151,152,153   Chemistry                          15

PSY 221            Statistics                          5
or MATH 250,251    Prob and Statistics                 8

Math 266A, 266B    Calculus w/App Biology              8

Sophomore

BIOS 320           Cell Biology                        4

BIOS 325           Genetics                            5

BIOS 330           Principles of Evolution             4

CHEM 301,302       Organic Chemistry                   6
or 305,306,307                                      or 9

PHYS 201,202,203   Physics                            15
or 251,252 or 262, 253
Some graduate or professional programs may require organic chemistry labs CHEM 303, 304 or 308, 309.

Junior/Senior

At least one course must be taken from three of the five areas below:

  1. Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology BIOS 463 Cell Chemistry 4 or CHEM 490,491 General Biochemistry I, II 7 BIOS 326(L) Laboratory Genetics 4 BIOS 407 Developmental Biology 4 BIOS 414 Molecular Cellular Neurosci 4 BIOS 426 Molecular Genetics 3 BIOS 427 Mechanisms Gene Regulation 3
  2. Physiology and Body Systems BIOS 342 and 354(L) Prin. Physiology I, Lab 5 BIOS 345 and 346(L) Human Physiology, Lab 7
  3. Form and Function BIOS 300(L) Anatomy and Histology 6 BIOS 301(L) Human Anatomy 6 BIOS 303(L) Comp. Vertebrate Anat 6 BIOS 430(L) Invertebrate Biol 6 BIOS 435(L) Entomology 6
  4. Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior BIOS 333 Neural Basis of Behavior 3 BIOS 375 Animal Ecology 4 BIOS 376(L) Field Ecology 4 BIOS 429(L) Marine Biology 5 BIOS 431(L) Limnology 5 BIOS 457 Animal Systematics 4 BIOS 473 Animal Behavior 5 BIOS 475 Sociobiology 3 BIOS 479 Evolution 4 BIOS 481 Animal Conservation Biol 4
  5. Plants and Microbes
BIOS 321(L) General Microbiology 5 PBIO 211 Diversity of Life 5 Two or more additional BIOS electives may be needed to fulfill the 54 credit hour requirement and upper level laboratory requirement for a degree in biological sciences. Choose additional courses from the list above or from any BIOS course at the 300 level or above.

A student in the Integrated Biology major my pusue one of the following special interests:
Clinical Laboratory Science and Medical Technology Students in Integrated Biological Sciences or any other biological sciences major track may choose to enter a Clinical Laboratory Sciences internship provided they have taken Microbiology (BIOS 321) and Immunology (BIOS 489A and B). A year spend in a licensed clinical facility qualifies a student to take the American Society of Clinical Pathologists registry exam to become an officially registered medical technologist. This program prepares students for work in hospital laboratories, public health bureaus, and other laboratories concerned with medical diagnosis and investigation. The job market is excellent. Coruses taken during the intrnship may count towards total credit hours in Biological Sciences if the student is registered at Ohio University, but do not substitute for particular course requirements. Students are strongly urged to see a clinical laboratory faculty advisor during their sophomore year if they are interested in this program.

Exercise Physiology
A student with an interest in exercise physiology may take courses designed to prepare for graduate studies in exercise or applied physiology. An Integrated Biological Sciences Major may pursue an interest in exercise physiology by taking Human Anatomy (BIOS 301) and Human Physiology (BIOS 345, 346) as Junior/Seniors. Biomechanics (BIOS 352) and Physiology of Exercise (BIOS 445, 446) are additional specialized courses available to students in this field. A student interested in pursuing the field of exercise physiology must see the faculty advisor in that field by the end of sophomore year.

Neuroscience
Students who are interested in graduate study in neuroscience; neuroscience research in conjuntion with a professional career in medicine, pharmacology, or dentistry; professional career in medicine, pharmacology, or dentistry; or research technician positions should consider this option. Integrated Biological Sciences Majors interested in this track must see the faculty advsior in the Neuroscience Program at the end of their sophomore year. Specialized neuroscience courses are required in the junior and senior years. Students are strongly encouraged to pursue undergraduate research since neuroscience careers almost exclusively involve research. The Neuroscience Program provides, on a competitive basis, stipend and support for research during the summer of the third year.

Biological Sciences-Cellular and Molecular Biology (B.S.)
Special curriculum; major code BS2520

Cellular and molecular biology are two of the most rapidly growing and exciting areas of modern biology. Progress in these areas is driven by the ongoing revolution in genetics and genomics, and has profound and wide-ranging implications for medicine and for our understanding of the mechanisms of life. This specialization will prepare students for graduate or professional school, and career paths in biotechnology, biomedical research, and related areas. These are fields that are experiencing tremendous growth in employment opportunities both in academia and in the private sector.

Freshman 
BIOS 170(L), 171(L), 
172, 173Sophomore  

BIOS 320            Cell Biology                       4

BIOS 325            Genetics                           5

BIOS 330            Principles of Evolution            4

BIOS 321(L)         General Microbiology               5

CHEM 305, 306, 307  Organic Chemistry                  9

CHEM 303, 304       Organic Chemistry Labs             4	

PHYS201,202,203     Physics                           15
or 251,252 or 262,253

Junior/Senior 

BIOS 326(L)         Genetics Lab                       4

BIOS 426            Molecular Genetics                 4

BIOS 427            Mechanisms/Gene Regulation         3

CHEM 490, 491       General Biochemistry I, II         7

Two of the following elective cellular/molecular courses:

BIOS 342, 354(L)    Prin Physiology I, Lab             5

BIOS 343, 355(L)    Prin Physiology II, Lab            5

BIOS 407            Developmental Biology              4

BIOS 414            Molecular Cellular Neurosci        4

BIOS 424A, B(L)     Virology, Lab                      5

BIOL 425            Evolutionary Genetics              4

BIOL 450            Princ of Endocrinology             4

BIOS 489(L)         Microbial Physiology               5

BIOS 422(L)         Microbial Techniques               5

PBIO 450            Biotech, Genetic Eng               4

Biological Sciences--Marine, Freshwater, and
Environmental Biology Major (B.S.
Special curriculum; major code BS2126

The Department of Biological Sciences provides this program for undergraduate majors who are interested in careers studying marine, freshwater or terrestrial organisms and their enviornments. Courses meet the requirements for admission to graduate programs in marine biology, zoology, ecology, and conservation biology. The program also provides the necessary background for jobs with state and federal ageancies (i.e., USDA or EPA) charged with environmental protection, research and monitoring, and information collection. Tier II social science electives can be chosen to meet the requirements of the Environmental Studies Certificate in conjunction with the environmental biiology track. For federal jo and employment information, see http://www.usajobs.opm.gov/.

BS2126 includes a minimum of 54 hours in BIOS.

Freshman

BIOS 170(L), 171(L)
172, 173(L)         Intro to Zoology                  14

CHEM 151, 152, 153  Chemistry                         15

PSY 221             Statistics                         5
or Math 250, 251    Prob and Statistics             or 8

Math 266A, 266B     Calculus w/App Biology             8

Sophomore

BIOS 320            Cell Biology                       4

BIOS 325            Genetics                           5

BIOS 330            Evolution                          4

BIOS 375            Animal Ecology                     4

CHEM 301, 302       Organic Chemsitry                  6
or CHEM 305, 306, 307                               or 9

PHYS 201, 202, 203  Physics                           15
or 251, 252 or 262, 253

Junior-Senior
BIOS 321(L)         Microbiology                       5
or PBIO 211         Diversity of Life

BIOS 342, 354(L)    Prin of Physiology I, Lab          5
or BIOS 463         Cell Chemistry                  or 4

BIOS 343, 355(L)    Prin of Physiology II, Lab         5
or GEOG 201         Environmental Geography         or 4

BIOS 376(L)         Field Ecology                      4
or BIOS 429(L)      Marine Biology                  or 5
or BIOS 431(L)      Limnology                       or 5

BIOS 303            Comp. Vert. Anatomy                6
or BIOS 430(L)      Invertebrate Zoology
or BIOS 435(L)      Enthomology
or BIOS 456(L)      Ichthyology

BIOS 491(L)         Internship                         3

Biological Sciences-Microbiology Major (B.S.)
Special curriculum; major Code BS0411

The Department of Biological Sciences provides a program for undergraduate majors who are interested in microbiology. This program provides the necessary background and extensive lab experience to pursue a variety of careers in the areas of: research and product development (e.g. immunology, vaccines, antimicrobials, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology), food and water quality control, microbial ecology, and clinical laboratory science. Graduates of this program are also prepared for further graduate studies in medicine, dentistry, optometry, public health, microbiology or molecular biology. With current interest and advances in molecular biology and genetics, emerging pathogens such as HIV and food-borne illness, the career opportunities and outlook are very good.

Students in this program are encouraged in participate in research opportunities their junior-senior years to prepare for a successful career in research and development.

BS0411 includes a minimumof 56 hours in BIOS.

Freshman

BIOS 170(L),171(L), 
172, 173(L)         Introduction to Zoology           14

CHEM 151,152,153    Fund. of Chemistry                15

PSY 221             Statistics                         5
or MATH 250,251     Prob and Statistics                8             
 
MATH 266A*          Calculus w/App Biology             8

*Students who change special curricula (major codes) within Biology will also be required to take MATH 266B.
or MATH 163A,163B   Intro to Calculus                  7

Sophomore

BIOS 320            Cell Biology                       4

BIOS 325            Genetics                           5

BIOS 330            Principles of Evolution            4
or BIOS 385         Microbal Ecology                or 3

BIOS 321(L)         General Microbiology               5

CHEM 305,306,307    Organic Chemistry                  9

PHYS 201,202,203    Physics                           15
or 251,252 or 262,253

Junior-Senior

BIOS 486A, B(L)     Immunology, Lab                    5

BIOS 489(L)         Microbial Physiology               5

BIOS 426            Molecular Genetics                 3

CHEM 241, 242       Quantitative Analysis              5

CHEM 490, 491       General Biochemistry I, II         7

At least 12 hours, including 2 lab courses from:

BIOS 326(L)         Lab Genetics                       4

BIOS 385            Microbial Ecology                  3

BIOS 422(L)         Microbial Techniques               5

BIOS 423A,423B(L)   Pathogenic Bacteriology, Lab       5

BIOS 424A,424B(L)   Virology, Lab                      5

BIOS 427            Gene Regulation                    3

BIOS 441A, 441B(L)  Parisitology, Lab                  5

Biological Sciences-Pre-Physical Therapy Major (B.S.)
Special curriculum; major code BS2507

The biology pre-physical therapy major is designed to meet the prerequisites of the physical therapy program at Ohio University and at many other institutions. This major is also designed to provide students with a solid background in the life sciences. It should be noted that there are no uniform requirements for physical therapy schools. If you are interested in applying to a particular physical therapy program you will need to consult the school's catalog or Web site for exact prerequisites. For more information about the Ohio University school of physical therapy, see the Physical Therapy listing in this catalog.

BS2507 includes a minimumof 55 hours in BIOS.

Freshman

BIOS 170(L),171(L), 
172,173(L)          Intro to Zoology                  14 

CHEM 151,152,153    Chemistry                         15

PSY 221             Statistics                         5
or MATH 250, 251    Prob and Statistics             or 8

MATH 266A(*)        Calculus w/App Biology             4

PSY 101             General Psychology                 5

Psy 273             Child Adolescent Psy               4

*Students who change special curricula (major codes) within Biology will be required to take MATH 266B in addition.

Sophomore 

BIOS 320            Cell Biology                       4

BIOS 325            General Genetics                   5

BIOS 330            Principles of Evolution            4

CHEM 301, 302       Organic Chemistry                  6
or 305,306,307                                      or 9

PHYS 201,202 203,   Physics                           15 
or 251,252 or 262,253     

PT 259A             Intro to Phys. Therapy             2

Junior-Senior 

BIOS 301(L)         Human Anatomy                      6

BIOS 345,346(L)     Human Physiology, Lab              7

BIOS 413(L)         Human Neuroscience                 4

BIOS 445,446(L)     Phys. of Exercise Lab              7

BIOS 463            Cell Chemistry                     4

Recommended Elective:

PT 259B             Intro to PT-Clinical Exp.          4

Additional recommended electives that fulfill Tier II and Arts and Sciences distribution requirements and are required by some PT schools:

CLAS 227            Greek and Latin Roots              4

PHIL 101            Fund Philosophy                    4
or PHIL 130         Intro to Ethics

Biological Sciences--Pre-Professional Program (B.S.)
Special curriculum; major code 2127

The Department of Biological Sciences provides a specialized curriculum for students interested in one of the following:

Pre-dentistry

Pre-medicine

Pre-optometry

Pre-veterinary medicine

While no specific major is required by any of these schools, this curriculum provides students with a degre in Biological Sciences, prepares them for their professional school experience, and fulfills course requirements for entry into most schools. Applicants to these schools are required to take one of the following admisison tests: Dental Admission Test (DAT), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). Optometry Admission Test (OAT), and either the Veterinary Admission Test (VAT) or Graduate Record Exam (GRE) for veterinary school.

Students are encouraged to choose an academic advisor who specializes in the type of professional school he or she is interested in attending. a student should contact the schools of choice and consult both academic advisor and the department pre-professional advisor for specific course and exam requirements.

Bs2127 includes a minimum of 54 hours in BIOS>

Freshman
BIOS 170(L), 171(L)
172, 173(L)         Intro to Zoology                  14

CHEM 151, 152, 153  Chemistry                         15

PSY 221             Statistics                         5
or MATH 250, 251    Prob and Statistics             or 8

MATH 266A, 266B     Calculus w/App Biology             8

Sophomore
BIOS 320            Cell Biology                       4

BIOS 325            Genetics                           5

BIOS 330            Principles of Evolution            4

BIOS 321(L)         General Microbiology               5

CHEM 305, 306, 307* Organic Chemistry                  9

PHYS 201, 202, 203
or 251, 252 or 262, 
253                 Physics                           15

Junior-Senior
BIOS 303(L)         Comp. Vert. Anatomy                6

BIOS 321(L)         General Microbiology               5

BIOS 342, 354(L)    Prin. of Physiology I, Lab         5

BIOS 343            Prin. of Physiology II             5

CHEM 490, 491**     General Biochemsitry I, II         7
or BIOS 463         Cell Chemistry                  or 4

*Many medical and dental schools require organic chemistry labs for admission.  Students considering these careers should take:

CHEM 303, 304       Organic Chemistry Lab              5
or CHEM 308, 309                                    or 6

**Students considering medical school or veterinary school should take CHEM 490,491 to fulfill their biochemistry requirement.

Many optometry schools require a psychology course for admission.  The following is recommended for students interested in this career track:

PSY 101             General Psychology                 5

Biological Sciences-Wildlife and Conservation Biology Major (B.S.)
Special curriculum; major code BS2515

This track is suitable for students who are interested in careers in the conservation and biology of wildlife. Graduates of this program meet the course qualifications for state and federal civil service registers as ecologist, wildlife biologist, wildlife refuge manager, zoologist, and general biologist. This program also provides training for students planning to go on to graduate school in wildlife biology or an allied discipline such as mammalogy, ornithology, herpetology, animal ecology, animal behavior, and conservation biology.

Tier II social science electives can be chosen to meet the requirements of the Environmentl Studies Certificate program. For federal job and employment information, check the following Web site: http://www.usajobs.opm.gov/.

BS2515 includes a minimum of 56 horus in BIOS.

Freshman 

BIOS 170(L), 171(L)
172,173(L)          Intro to Zoology                  14

CHEM 151,152,153    Fund. of Chemistry                15

PSY 221             Statistics                         5
or MATH 250,251     Prob and Statistics             or 8

MATH 266A, 266B     Calculus w/App Biology             8

Sophomore 

BIOS 320            Cell Biology                       4

BIOS 325            Genetics                           5

BIOS 330            Principles of Evolution            4

CHEM 301, 302       Organic Chemistry                  6
or                  305,306,307                     or 9

PHYS 201, 202       Physics                           10
or 251,252 or 262

Junior-Senior 

BIOS 303(L)         Comp Vert. Anatomy                 6

BIOS 375            Animal Ecology                     4

BIOS 376(L)         Field Ecology                      4

BIOS 491(L)         Internships                        3

At least 12 hours in wildlife subjects including at least one lab course from:

BIOS 471(L)         Ornithology                        6

BIOS 474(L)         Mammalogy                          6

BIOS 477            Population Ecology                 4

BIOS 478            Community Ecology                  4

BIOS 481            Animal Conservation Biology        4

BIOS 458(L)         Biology of Amphibians(*)           3

BIOS 459(L)         Biology of Reptiles (*)            3

BIOS 465(L)         Ichtyology(*)                      6

The following 14 hours in PBIO courses:

PBIO 211            Diversity of Life                  5

PBIOO 248           Trees and Shrubs                   4

PBIO 435            Plant Population Biology           5
or PBIO 436         Plant Community Ecology 
or PBIO 437         Ecosystem Ecology 

*BIOS 465, BIOS 458, and BIOS 459 may be used to fulfill elective requirements for this track, but do not meet federal civil service register requirements as wildlife subjects.

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